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Investigate and find out how the length of a wire will affect the resistance of a current.

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Introduction

Science CourseworkInvestigating the factors that affect resistance

Aim

I plan to investigate and find out how the length of a wire will affect the resistance of a current.

Prediction

I predict that if the wire is longer, the electrons have to travel further to keep the current flowing- this means that there is more resistance as it takes longer for the electrons to pass through the wire; I believe experimenting with a shorter wire would result in less resistance as the electrons have less distance to travel.

The Variables that effect resistance are:

  • Length – Length affects the amount of resistance because the longer the wire, the more resistance there will be; as the passing electrons would have more of a chance colliding with the atoms in the wire.
  • Material – Material effects the amount of resistance because the denser the material the less gaps which means more resistance.
  • Thickness – Thickness effects resistance because the thicker the wire the more ‘gaps’ there will be this means that more electrons can pass through the wire freely. The thicker the wire the lower the resistance.
  • Temperature – The temperature effects resistance because when the wire is ‘hot’ the atoms in the wire vibrate, this means the electrons have less of a chance of passing these atoms, so are more likely to collide with these atoms. Therefore not as much electricity can pass down the wire so the resistance is greater.

Method:

Input Variables- The input variable is the length of the wire. I will vary this by using wires 10cm, 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 50cm, 60cm, 70cm, 80cm long.

Output variable-The output variable is the resistance of the wire. With the voltmeter and ammeter I can find out the resistance.

Control variables

Thickness:

image00.png

Material:

image01.png

Temperature:

image02.png

Apparatus and Equipment

-Meter ruler

-Nicrohme wire

-Voltmeter

-Ammeter

-3 batteries

-Crocodile Clips

Circuit diagram

Separate results will be taken for the first three batteries, then two batteries and then one battery alone. These will give different results and a clearer idea of how resistance increases as length of wire increases.

Instructions

  • Connect wires from the three batteries to the Ammeter and to the voltmeter and to the strip of Nicrohme wire, which sits above the rule. This is because the wire needs to be measured.
  • Once connected place the wire with a crocodile clip at the end of it, on the Nicrohme wire that has a rule underneath, and place the wire at 10cm and measure the amps and volts on the screen of the Voltmeter and Ammeter.
  • Do this every 10cm up to 80cm, writing the results down for volts and amps for each 10 cm reading.
  • Do all the above for two batteries.
  • Do the same for one battery also.
  • Do experiment again.
...read more.

Middle

60

70

80

90

100

Results 2- the results had a current running on 2 batteries.

Length (cm)

Voltage (V)

Current (I)

Resistance (ohms)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Length (cm)

Voltage (V)

Current (I)

Resistance (ohms)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

...read more.

Conclusion

Before hand also I calculated that the resistance in Ohms would be higher as the length increased.

Evaluation

I did find some anomalous results although I did keep a fair test all through the test so these odd results may be random, whereas my results are still reliable as I repeated the experiment with different numbers of batteries. Although I could not control the temperature which may have affected my results as I went along; Which might explain the anomalous results.

             I don't think I could improve the experiment because it worked very well and got me some accurate results. I also found the experiment quite easy to set up as well. A further experiment I could do would be to see whether the diameter of a wire affects the resistance. But for this I would need to used quite thick wire other wise this would be impossible.

...read more.

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