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Investigate concentration of amylase to see how fast it breaks down.

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Introduction

INVESTIGATION Aim To investigate concentration of amylase to see how fast it breaks down. Scientific Knowledge An enzyme is a biological catalyst. A catalyst enables substances to react more quickly. Atoms break and form easily which are between bonds which are helped by catalysts. The particles need less energy, so the proceeds more quickly. For example, catalysts are now used in car exhaust systems. Car fumes contain poisonous carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. These pollutants react together very slowly to form, carbon dioxide and nitrogen which are not poisonous. Carbon monoxide + nitrogen oxide --> Carbon dioxide + Nitrogen 2Co + 2No --> 2Co2 + N2 When the exhaust's fumes pass over the platinum, the carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide react together very rapidly. However, none of the platinum is used up during the reaction. The mass of platinum is the same after the reaction as before. The platinum has acted as catalyst. Therefore we state a catalyst as a substance which alters the rate of a reaction without being used up. (Reference: revise GCSE Single and Double award) There are different factors that affect the reaction rates. ...read more.

Middle

The reason it cannot do this is, because the shape of it is different to the substance. The downside of this process is that only a limited amount can fit at the active sites which can makes the process itself slow. Apparatus Spotting palette 1% starch Concentrated solution 0.25%-1.25% Pipettes Iodine Test tube Test tube rack Timer Method 1. Put 2 drops of iodine in to each dimple on the spotting tray. Keep pipettes separated to prevent cross-contamination and making sure you use the same pipette for the same job. 2. Collect water from the water bath and place the enzymes on it for a couple of minutes to get the enzymes working. 3. In the meantime, mix starch and amylase of 0.25%. 4. Put 2 drops of solution into the dimples which contain iodine. Start the timer. Every 20 seconds put the concentrated solution in to the dimple containing iodine. 5. Watch for the change of colour; form brown to black. Stop the timer once the colour has changed. 6. Record the time taken for the starch to convert in to sugar. ...read more.

Conclusion

To prevent cross- contamination, we could have used labels on the pipettes and other instruments. We could also have special pipettes to allow certain amount of drops. The other problem was time, if we had enough time, we would be able to repeat the procedures enough to get a decent average. For a further investigation and to support my conclusion, I will have a second method. To produce this evidence, I will have to produce an investigation to produce the similar results. The things that we need to keep in mind are that we had problems with the colour. To resolve this, I will change the enzyme. The substrate I will use is a chemical metabolic waste known as hydrogen peroxide. It is produced by every cell. It is catalyse that reacts with the toxin to make water and oxygen. The chemical formula is: 2h2o2-->H2o+o2 This will prove my conclusion because as the enzyme reacts with the hydrogen peroxide, two substances are created. They are water and oxygen. The oxygen will go through the pipe in to the water and up the measuring cylinder. This will show is how much oxygen is collected and measure it with the cylinder of how much oxygen is collected up. CREATED BY UMAR ...read more.

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