• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5
6. 6
6
7. 7
7
8. 8
8
9. 9
9
10. 10
10
11. 11
11
12. 12
12

# Investigate factors that affect the amount of heat produced in neutralisation. My objective is to plan and conduct an experiment from which I should be able to draw a firm conclusion that will either prove or disprove any predictions I have made.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

I am going to investigate factors that affect the amount of heat produced in neutralisation. My objective is to plan and conduct an experiment from which I should be able to draw a firm conclusion that will either prove or disprove any predictions I have made. The factor I will be investigating is concentration. Preliminary Experiment In order to investigate the factor that affects the amount of heat produced during neutralisation I will first of all need to conduct an experiment in order to help choose the equipment that I will be using. This experiment shall give me clear evidence to what sort of vessel I shall use during my experiment. I either shall be using a glass beaker or a polystyrene cup. The vessel that overall I shall be using will be the one which shall insulate the solution inside its container the best. I have chosen the glass beaker and the polystyrene cup because I have found that these two containers are resistant to any sort of corrosion that might occur whilst I will be using the acid and the alkalis. Diagram Method 1. I will first measure out 20ml of 2M Hydrochloric acid and pour it into the glass beaker. 2. Then I will measure the starting temperature. 3. Then I will out 20ml of 2M Sodium hydroxide add it into the Hydrochloric acid. 4. Then I will measure and record the increase in temperature. 5. I will then repeat this experiment twice. 6. Then I will repeat the steps above (1-6), but now using a polystyrene cup. Result table Test Starting temp. (�c) Finish temp. (�c) Difference in temp. (�c) Average increase.(�c) 1. Glass Beaker 18.5 22.0 3.5 3.8 2. Glass Beaker 19.0 22.5 3.5 3. Glass Beaker 19.0 23.5 4.5 1.Polystyrene cup 19.5 29.5 10.0 9.2 2.Polystyrene cup 19.0 27.5 8.5 3.Polystyrene cup 19.0 28.0 9 Conclusion I believe that by looking at my observation table, it is clearly evident that the polystyrene cup prevents less heat from escaping than the glass beaker. ...read more.

Middle

* A plastic tray. Below is diagram displaying how the apparatus should be set up Method 1. Set up apparatus above 2. Measure 25ml of Sodium hydroxide using a measuring cylinder and pour it into the polystyrene cup (N. b. ensuring goggles are worn and polystyrene cup is on plastic tray) 3. Stir the alkali using a thermometer. 4. Measure and record the starting temperature. 5. Measure 25ml of 0.5M hydrochloric acid using a measuring cylinder then place into a glass beaker. 6. Place the glass beaker onto the plastic tray. 7. Add the contents of the glass beaker to the Sodium hydroxide in the polystyrene cup. 8. Measure and record the maximum temperature using the thermometer already placed in the polystyrene cup. 9. Repeat this procedure for all the concentrations (0.5;0. 75; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 & 3.0 molar) of hydrochloric. 10. Repeat steps 1-9 using sulphuric acid and then ethanoic acid. The following aspects will be considered when conducting the procedure; I will wear goggles in order to provide adequate eye protection in case of splashes. As a general precaution I will carry out the procedure with care avoiding any potential spillages i.e. ensuring any stools and bags are clear of obstruction. It is important to have a clean and organised workspace so the procedure can be carried out effectively. Further more I will be handling a corrosive substance, which is why a plastic tray will be used. Tables of results Results obtained when using Hydrochloric Acid Test Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid (molar) Starting Temperature (�c) Finishing Temperature (�c) Rise In Temperature (�c) Average Increase in temp. Per concentration 1 0.5 20.0 21.0 1.0 1.5 2 0.5 20.0 22.0 2.0 1 0.75 19.0 20.0 1.0 2.0 2 0.75 19.0 20.0 1.0 1 1.0 20.0 24.0 4.0 3.0 2 1.0 21.0 23.0 2.0 1 1.5 18.0 23.0 5.0 5.0 2 1.5 19.0 24.0 5.0 1 2.0 19.0 27.0 6.0 6.0 2 2.0 19.0 27.0 6.0 1 3.0 19.0 28.0 9.0 9.5 2 3.0 18.0 28.0 10.0 Results obtained when using Sulphuric Acid Test Concentration of Sulphuric Acid (molar) ...read more.

Conclusion

I believe that my results were accurate. I feel that the conclusion I have drawn from the experiment could be furthermore supported by improved results. The results that I got from the procedure incorporated anomalous results, which question the certainty of my conclusion. A general improvement to the procedure itself would be to repeat the procedure to give more results and there for better averages in order to draw fully supported conclusions. Further improvements I believe that I could of improved the accuracy in my experiment my the following: * Instead of using a measuring cylinder I could of used a burette. * I could of used a variety of acids higher than 3M. * As opposed to a 0-50�c thermometer, I could of used a digital thermometer. It works by placing a heat sensitive probe in the solution. The probe is connected to a computer, which then takes an accurate reading of the temperature. * I could have placed a lid on top on the polystyrene cup reducing the temperature loss. * I could of used a vacuum flask. The flask would have cavity insulation so the heat cannot escape. I believe that further improvements could have been made: * I could of used a variety of acids such as Nitric acid. * I could of also used a different alkali to see if that made any difference in the temperature increase. * I could of used different volumes of acids and alkalis. * I could of investigated in the prevention of heat loss. * I believe I could of also have used universal indicator. I could measure out 18ml of acid and use universal indicator to see if is was pure acid. Then I could measure and 25ml of alkali and use the universal indicator to see if it is a pure alkali. I believe that even though if I were to use the same volume of acid and alkali, only a certain amount would be needed for complete neutralisation. MANDEEP SINGH JAGPAL 10JW NEUTRALISATION INVESTIGATION 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

1. ## Chemistry Investigation on neutralisation reaction.

5 star(s)

In the calculations to follow I will assume that in both experiments 25ml of acid was needed to neutralise 25ml of alkali. In the first experiment it was 25ml of 0.1 moles/dm3 of HCl and NaOH and in the second experiment 25ml of 2 moles/dm3 of HCl and NaOH.

2. ## Enthalpy of Neutralisation.

3 star(s)

but these do not exist on their own in the solution), ethanoic acid has a pH range of 2.88-3, which is alkaline. This shows that hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid are more reactive than ethanoic acid, which is a very weak acid.

1. ## The aim of this experiment is to answer the following question: What is the ...

I will then measure the final titre and find the amount of solution used in neutralising the acid. 8. Take a sample again of the reaction mixture after two days and repeat the titration. 9. Take a third sample of the reaction mixture after three days and repeat the titration.

2. ## Investigate a neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.

The factor I will choose to vary is the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. To keep this a fair test I will have to keep the other the factors constant. The temperature will remain constant by using the room temperature (25?c). The concentration of the sodium hydroxide will be constant.

1. ## Investigation to find out the factors affecting heat of neutralisation, and then choosing one ...

reagents. Of the two weak acids (ethanoic and propanoic ) I predict that the propanoic will create a lower heat of neutralisation, as it has a longer chain length and is less soluble in water, and from research I believe that the longer the chain length, the less ionised the acid.

2. ## Analysing the ethanoic acid concentration in different types of vinegars.

and record the result from the screen. I will perform 2 repeats for each distillate and average these results. To maintain the accuracy of the pH meter I will wash it with distilled water after every test and this will ensure that my results are not affected by my previous readings. Results: Titration: Malt Vinegar: Titration no.

1. ## To investigate the effect of concentration on the temperature rise, heat evolved and heat ...

heat evolved per mole, and when the concentration increases the mole also increases in the same proportion so as the heat evolved, so heat of neutralisation will not change by concentration change. 2. Volume - when the volume increases the heat evolved will increase but the temperature change and heat of neutralisation will remain constant.

2. ## Determine the Enthalpy of Neutralisation for the following there Acids, H2SO4, HNO3 and H2SO4

The diagram below shoes how I will set it up: Method: 1) Using a measuring cylinder, measure 25.0cm of Acid 2) Place 25.0cm3 of Acid in the polystyrene cup, measure the temperature with a thermometer each minute for 4 minutes, using a stop clock.

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to