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Investigate factors that affect the amount of heat produced in neutralisation. My objective is to plan and conduct an experiment from which I should be able to draw a firm conclusion that will either prove or disprove any predictions I have made.

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Introduction

I am going to investigate factors that affect the amount of heat produced in neutralisation. My objective is to plan and conduct an experiment from which I should be able to draw a firm conclusion that will either prove or disprove any predictions I have made. The factor I will be investigating is concentration. Preliminary Experiment In order to investigate the factor that affects the amount of heat produced during neutralisation I will first of all need to conduct an experiment in order to help choose the equipment that I will be using. This experiment shall give me clear evidence to what sort of vessel I shall use during my experiment. I either shall be using a glass beaker or a polystyrene cup. The vessel that overall I shall be using will be the one which shall insulate the solution inside its container the best. I have chosen the glass beaker and the polystyrene cup because I have found that these two containers are resistant to any sort of corrosion that might occur whilst I will be using the acid and the alkalis. Diagram Method 1. I will first measure out 20ml of 2M Hydrochloric acid and pour it into the glass beaker. 2. Then I will measure the starting temperature. 3. Then I will out 20ml of 2M Sodium hydroxide add it into the Hydrochloric acid. 4. Then I will measure and record the increase in temperature. 5. I will then repeat this experiment twice. 6. Then I will repeat the steps above (1-6), but now using a polystyrene cup. Result table Test Starting temp. (�c) Finish temp. (�c) Difference in temp. (�c) Average increase.(�c) 1. Glass Beaker 18.5 22.0 3.5 3.8 2. Glass Beaker 19.0 22.5 3.5 3. Glass Beaker 19.0 23.5 4.5 1.Polystyrene cup 19.5 29.5 10.0 9.2 2.Polystyrene cup 19.0 27.5 8.5 3.Polystyrene cup 19.0 28.0 9 Conclusion I believe that by looking at my observation table, it is clearly evident that the polystyrene cup prevents less heat from escaping than the glass beaker. ...read more.

Middle

* A plastic tray. Below is diagram displaying how the apparatus should be set up Method 1. Set up apparatus above 2. Measure 25ml of Sodium hydroxide using a measuring cylinder and pour it into the polystyrene cup (N. b. ensuring goggles are worn and polystyrene cup is on plastic tray) 3. Stir the alkali using a thermometer. 4. Measure and record the starting temperature. 5. Measure 25ml of 0.5M hydrochloric acid using a measuring cylinder then place into a glass beaker. 6. Place the glass beaker onto the plastic tray. 7. Add the contents of the glass beaker to the Sodium hydroxide in the polystyrene cup. 8. Measure and record the maximum temperature using the thermometer already placed in the polystyrene cup. 9. Repeat this procedure for all the concentrations (0.5;0. 75; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 & 3.0 molar) of hydrochloric. 10. Repeat steps 1-9 using sulphuric acid and then ethanoic acid. The following aspects will be considered when conducting the procedure; I will wear goggles in order to provide adequate eye protection in case of splashes. As a general precaution I will carry out the procedure with care avoiding any potential spillages i.e. ensuring any stools and bags are clear of obstruction. It is important to have a clean and organised workspace so the procedure can be carried out effectively. Further more I will be handling a corrosive substance, which is why a plastic tray will be used. Tables of results Results obtained when using Hydrochloric Acid Test Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid (molar) Starting Temperature (�c) Finishing Temperature (�c) Rise In Temperature (�c) Average Increase in temp. Per concentration 1 0.5 20.0 21.0 1.0 1.5 2 0.5 20.0 22.0 2.0 1 0.75 19.0 20.0 1.0 2.0 2 0.75 19.0 20.0 1.0 1 1.0 20.0 24.0 4.0 3.0 2 1.0 21.0 23.0 2.0 1 1.5 18.0 23.0 5.0 5.0 2 1.5 19.0 24.0 5.0 1 2.0 19.0 27.0 6.0 6.0 2 2.0 19.0 27.0 6.0 1 3.0 19.0 28.0 9.0 9.5 2 3.0 18.0 28.0 10.0 Results obtained when using Sulphuric Acid Test Concentration of Sulphuric Acid (molar) ...read more.

Conclusion

I believe that my results were accurate. I feel that the conclusion I have drawn from the experiment could be furthermore supported by improved results. The results that I got from the procedure incorporated anomalous results, which question the certainty of my conclusion. A general improvement to the procedure itself would be to repeat the procedure to give more results and there for better averages in order to draw fully supported conclusions. Further improvements I believe that I could of improved the accuracy in my experiment my the following: * Instead of using a measuring cylinder I could of used a burette. * I could of used a variety of acids higher than 3M. * As opposed to a 0-50�c thermometer, I could of used a digital thermometer. It works by placing a heat sensitive probe in the solution. The probe is connected to a computer, which then takes an accurate reading of the temperature. * I could have placed a lid on top on the polystyrene cup reducing the temperature loss. * I could of used a vacuum flask. The flask would have cavity insulation so the heat cannot escape. I believe that further improvements could have been made: * I could of used a variety of acids such as Nitric acid. * I could of also used a different alkali to see if that made any difference in the temperature increase. * I could of used different volumes of acids and alkalis. * I could of investigated in the prevention of heat loss. * I believe I could of also have used universal indicator. I could measure out 18ml of acid and use universal indicator to see if is was pure acid. Then I could measure and 25ml of alkali and use the universal indicator to see if it is a pure alkali. I believe that even though if I were to use the same volume of acid and alkali, only a certain amount would be needed for complete neutralisation. MANDEEP SINGH JAGPAL 10JW NEUTRALISATION INVESTIGATION 1 ...read more.

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