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Investigate factors that may affect the rate of reaction of sodium thiousulphate when added to hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Investigate factors that may affect the rate of reaction of sodium thiousulphate when added to hydrochloric acid Problem Investigate factors that may affect the rate of reaction of sodium thiousulphate when added to hydrochloric acid. When sodium thiosulphate is added to hydrochloric acid a salt, sodium chloride, water, sulphur dioxide and sulphur are produced. Here is the equation for the reaction Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric Acid = Sodium Chloride + Water + Sulphur Dioxide + Sulphur Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) = 2NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + SO2 (g) + S (s) When these two substances react the solution they form becomes cloudy because a precipitate is formed. I will use this change to investigate the problem as explained later. Background Knowledge In a chemical reaction, the starting materials are called the reactants, and the finishing materials are called the products. It takes time for a chemical reaction to take happen. If the reactant takes only a short time to change in to the product, that reaction is a fast reaction. The speed of or rate of that reaction is high. If a reaction takes a long time to change the reactant into the product, it is a slow reaction. ...read more.

Middle

From my own scientific knowledge I think that if the temperature is increased much higher than 70 the reaction will occur too rapidly. The following apparatus will be used in my experiment: 1 thermometer 5 beakers (one for each temperature of sodium thiosulpahte solution) 1 burette 1 measuring cylinder 1 volumetric flask 1 tripod 1 gauze 1 heatproof mat 1 stop clock 1 Bunsen burner Cross marked on paper 1 pair of tongs 1 pair of goggles Method * 5 grams of sodium thiosulphate is measured using a balance. * The sodium thiosulphate is then added to 250cm3 of distilled water (distilled water is used incase any impurities in normal water would affect the results., in beaker, to form sodium thiosulphate solution. The beaker is stirred with a glass rod to help sodium thiosulphate dissolve. This solution is then poured into a volumetric flask and shaken at least 7 times to help the sodium thiosulphate dissolve. * Rinse the solution through a burette then fill the burette. (A burette is used for accuracy in pouring off exact amounts of solution.) Pore off 40cm3 of solution into a beaker. ...read more.

Conclusion

It might not have been heated to exactly 50 (oC), incorrect volumes of solution may have been used, the stop clock may not have been started on time. Evaluation The procedure used was good and produced good results but it could have been improved. Improvements that could be made if the experiment was repeated: 1. Try to measure out the quantities of all substances required more accurately as human error could be the cause for the anomalous result. 2. Measure the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate solution more accurately. Use a water bath heated to the required temperature and place the solution into it. The water bath will change the solution to the required temperature. 3. Gain a wider range of results by carrying out the experiment at more temperatures. This will help trends become even more visible. 4. Use a more accurate way of determining when the solution is completely opaque. A light sensor could be used and connected to a computer it could time each reaction to the same point, making the results more accurate. All in all I think this was a good experiment and the best that could have been done with the time and resources available. The results supported my predictions and they seem to be fairly reliable results. ...read more.

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