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Investigate how changing the surface area of Calcium carbonate affects the rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

AIM: My aim is to investigate how changing the surface area of Calcium carbonate affects the rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid. PLAN: In my experiment I will need the following equipment: * 2 conical flasks. * Cotton wool - placed loosely above flask to trap acid spray. * 0 - 1000g balance - to weigh and equalize the mass of the marble chips and the powdered marble, to weigh how much mass is lost after reaction. * 20cm3 of hydrochloric acid for each flask. * A stop clock - to time the reaction (5:00 minutes). Safety I will wear goggles since acids can damage eyes or the pupil cavity if inadvertently squirted at. When using the acid I will handle it cautiously and with responsibility because acids are very dangerous substances and can cause major skin irritation or burns. Marble chips however small or large can be sometimes inhaled or lodged in bodily organs and orifices like eyes and ears or noses. These dangers should be noted; nevertheless they are unlikely to occur. Fair testing To keep it a fair test, the variables need to be kept the same to prevent getting the incorrect results. The acid needs to be kept at a constant room temperature to avoid the marble chips or powdered marble from reacting at a different rate. The size of the marble chips needs to be kept the same because when I do my 1st attempt the chips need to have equal mass and size compared to the 2nd, therefore this will make the test fair. ...read more.

Middle

+ H20 (l) + CO2 (g) METHOD: To make sure the experiment was fair I had to follow the same method every time that is listed underneath. To start with we placed the marble chips inside the flask and then we weighed it on the balance. The chips weighed 52.70g to the nearest 2 decimal places. Afterwards, we measured 20cm3 of hydrochloric acid with a measuring cylinder and then we added it to the chips. Instantaneously we started the stop clock. To make sure no spray escaped out of the flask we loosely placed a cotton wool above it. After the 5:00 minutes were up we stopped the timer. Then we recorded the results to the results chart. Shortly after I had done the 1st attempt I repeated the same procedure again to ensure higher accuracy. Later on, after I had finished the test with the marble chips, I started my experiment with the exact process but with powdered marble. Then I repeated every step again, like I clarified earlier, to make sure the results are highly exact as possible. To guarantee our method was safe we followed the safety procedures listed earlier. DIAGRAM: Flask 1: Flask 2: RESULTS CHART: Time of reaction: 5:00minutes MARBLE Mass at start (g) Mass at end (g) Loss in Mass (g) Percentage Loss Average Percentage loss in Mass 1st attempt CHIPS 52.7 49.9 2.8 5.3 5.2 2nd attempt CHIPS 52.7 50 2.7 5.1 1st attempt POWDERED 52.7 46.3 6.4 12.1 11.95 2nd ...read more.

Conclusion

3. Use of catalysts: Also increases the number of collisions by giving the reacting particles a surface to attach to where they can knock into each other. Catalysts are not used up in a reaction. These factors affect the number of collisions of reactant particles, and this, in turn, affects the rate of the reaction. Evaluation: I think the experiment went very well as I managed to get all the information I needed and safety procedures were followed so no accidents took place or any people were injured which I am very pleased about. I believe that my results are reliable and precise because I repeated my experiment 2 times and then I calculated an average for my results which made it reasonably accurate. The graph proved to me that my predictions were correct, as I didn't get any anomalous results. I think that my test was fair because I used equivalent mass of marble and hydrochloric acid for each of my experiments, the same equipment was used, the test took place at equal room temperature (25 degrees Celsius), and the time recordings were exact. I believe that I could have improved my investigation by maybe repeating the experiment more than twice by taking more readings or I could have included tests on other forms of marble, for example: small marble chips and large marble chips. This would improve the accuracy of our graph which would give us a more distinct and obvious pattern. This will furthermore give additional in depth information concerning the reaction of different sizes of marble with hydrochloric acid and their mass loss. ...read more.

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