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Investigate how concentration affects the rate of a reaction using marble chips (CaCO3 ) and Hydrochloric acid (HC1).

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Introduction

Investigating rates of reaction A reaction is when the particles from two substances react together to form or give off a new substance. The rate of reaction is how fast or how slow a reaction goes. Plan For this investigation, I am going to investigate how concentration affects the rate of a reaction. To do this I am going to use marble chips (CaCO3 ) and Hydrochloric acid (HC1) along with water (H2O) and record how long it takes for the marble chips to react with several concentrations of acid, after a certain length of time. The one thing that I am going to change throughout my experiment is the concentration. I predict that if I increase the concentration (so that there is a greater percentage of acid) the faster the reaction will be; My reason is because there will be more particles of acid, in the same volume, colliding with the marble chip particles and the more collisions the faster a reaction is. If I decrease the concentration then the reaction time would be much slower as there are fewer particles in the same concentration, meaning fewer collisions between the acid and the marble chips. If I were to double the concentration then I predict that the reaction time would halve as there would be double the amount of acid particles colliding with the marble chip particles, decreasing the length of time they would take to react. A solution that is more concentrated has more acid particles in the same volume as one, which has less particles, so therefore is less concentrated. If there are more acid particles then it increases the chance of them colliding into the marble particles so the rate of reaction will be much quicker. Equipment used to carry out the experiment: Glass measuring cylinder Clamp stand Gasses produced Measuring cylinder Washing bowl Stop clock Water 3 decimal place balance Conical flask Marble chips Solution To do this test, first you have to set up all your equipment ...read more.

Middle

knew what to expect and gave us an idea of the speed in which it would take for the small marble chips to react with the acid. RESULTS Volume of gas collected Experiment Acid/mls Water/mls 1 min mls 2 min mls 3 min mls 4 min mls 5 min mls 1 10 40 20 26 32 48 46 2 10 40 8 20 32 46 58 Average 14 23 32 47 57 1 20 30 86 151 196 230 258 2 20 30 86 142 183 214 237 Average 86 146.5 189.5 222 247.5 1 30 20 146 256 316 364 402 2 30 20 155 263 338 380 430 Average 150.5 259.5 327 372 416 1 40 10 270 410 506 562 601 2 40 10 240 366 484 560 607 Average 255 388 495 561 640 1 50 0 234 348 510 590 644 2 50 0 250 390 536 582 636 Average 242 369 523 586 640 Volume of gas ? time = rate Acid (mls) Water (mls) 3 mins (volume of gas mls) Volume of gas ? time 10 40 32 10.6 20 30 189.5 63.2 30 20 327 109 40 10 495 165 50 0 523 174.3 This was another calculation I did to reach a conclusion. It measures the rate of the reaction between the different solutions after 3 minutes. I drew up a graph so that I could identify any other patterns in the results. ANALYSIS The graph that shows the average volume of gas made by the marble chips and hydrochloric acid, for each concentration it steadily increases as the time increases eg 1 minute = 20mls, 2 minutes = 26mls and 3 minutes = 32mls etc. This is because more gas is being made every minute so therefore the greater the time, the greater the volume of gas made. Also, the more concentrated the solution the steeper the line of average gas made. ...read more.

Conclusion

It allows you to control the amount you add, drop by drop rather than pouring large amounts at one time that could be above or below your proposed measurement. To measure the exact amount of gas made I also could have used a gas syringe, again this would be far more accurate than using glass measuring cylinders filled with water. As gas is being made from the reaction, it rises up the flask and pushes its way into the gas syringe forcing the plunger to move out and then the volume of gas can be measured accurately. There is yet another way in which I could have approached this experiment and back up my conclusion. Instead of collecting the gas given off in the reaction, I could have recorded the mass loss. This would enable me to record how much mass was being lost as the reaction occurred. The more gas given off, then the more concentrated the solution. If we measured the mass loss to 4 decimal places, this would be a very accurate way to follow the rate of reaction. (Also by using powdered marble chips, this would produce a good mass loss and give us a wider range of results that were more consistent). Mass loss experiment Place flask onto a balance and add the marble chips , straight away, once you've poured in the concentrated acid start the stop clock and seal the top of the flask with a plug of cotton wool to prevent too much gas from escaping. As the reaction is occurring, gas is given off, so the mass will decrease as more gas given given off. A more concentrated gives off more gas so will also have a grater decrease in mass loss. The evidence from my results are reliable and conclusive enough to support my conclusion that increasing the concentration increases the rate but I have not gathered enough accurate results to justify that doubling the concentration will double the rate of reaction; I would have to do more repeats of the experiment to accurately confirm this prediction Sarah Jury ...read more.

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