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Investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects its reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry Coursework - Rate of Reaction Investigation Planning Aim Background Information Collision Theory For particles to react, two things must happen: 1) The particles must collide with each other. 2) The particles must collide with enough energy. This initial energy is known as activation energy, and it's needed to break the initial bonds If the collision has enough energy the reaction will take place and by products will be formed. If the collision does not have enough energy no reaction will take place, instead the particles will just bounce away from each other. The rate of reaction depends on how many successful collisions there are in a given amount of time. Factors that affect the rate of reaction: There are four factors that can affect the rate of reaction: 1) Temperature If you increase the temperature, the rate of reaction will increase. This is because at low temperatures the particles don't have as much energy, but when they are heated they take in energy which makes them move faster and collide more often. This means the collisions also have more energy, which makes more of the collisions successful. This is why as you increase the temperature the rate of reaction increases. 2) Concentration The rate of reaction increases with concentration because when the acid is more concentrated, there are more acid particles in a given volume. This means there is a better chance of a successful collision occurring. In dilute acid, like the one shown below, there are not so many acid particles. This means there is not as much of a chance of an acid particle hitting a limestone atom. In more concentrated acids, like the one shown below, there are more acid particles. There is now more of a chance of a successful collision occurring. The reaction of limestone with hydrochloric acid shows that with time the reaction slows down. This is because at the start of the reaction there are plenty of limestone atoms and acid particles. ...read more.

Middle

Results Below are the four results tables in which the data has been arranged into: Concentration - 1 molar Volume of Carbon Dioxide Gas Produced (cm3) Time (seconds) 1st Run 2nd Run Average Of Both Runs 0 0 0 0 10 4 5 5 20 5 6 6 30 7 7 7 40 9 10 10 50 12 11 12 60 15 14 15 70 18 19 19 80 22 21 22 90 27 26 27 100 32 31 32 110 37 36 37 120 42 40 41 130 48 47 48 140 53 51 52 150 57 55 56 160 62 60 61 170 67 66 67 180 71 72 72 190 77 76 77 200 80 80 80 210 85 84 85 220 88 88 88 230 92 91 92 240 95 94 95 250 98 99 99 260 100+ 100+ - Concentration - 2 molar Volume of Carbon Dioxide Gas Produced (cm3) Time (seconds) 1st Run 2nd Run Average Of Both Runs 0 0 0 0 10 12 10 11 20 24 19 22 30 35 30 33 40 48 41 45 50 58 55 57 60 71 68 70 70 88 82 85 80 100+ 93 - 90 100+ - Concentration - 3 molar Volume of Carbon Dioxide Gas Produced (cm3) Time (seconds) 1st Run 2nd Run Average Of Both Runs 0 0 0 0 10 16 14 15 20 31 29 30 30 42 40 41 40 55 57 56 50 68 70 69 60 87 89 88 70 100+ 100+ - Concentration - 4 molar Volume of Carbon Dioxide Gas Produced (cm3) Time (seconds) 1st Run 2nd Run Average Of Both Runs 0 0 0 0 5 12 12 12 10 19 22 21 15 28 30 29 20 40 41 41 25 48 52 50 30 55 58 57 35 65 65 65 40 75 75 75 45 86 90 88 50 95 98 97 55 100+ 100+ - In order to be as accurate as possible I repeated each experiment two times. ...read more.

Conclusion

Some groups did the experiments over two days. That is why I'm making this point. Also no windows should be opened during the experiments so that the room would stay at a fairly constant temperature. Therefore the results would be more reliable as the temperature of the room would be more or less the same throughout. * The surface area of the calcium carbonate chips can be kept constant by cutting equal cubes from a big block of calcium carbonate. Therefore if the chips used in each experiment had the same surface area, then this would also mean a fair test leading to more reliable results. * All of the equipment should be checked before the experiment for faults. This includes the gas syringes. The gas syringes should be cleaned after every experiment, so that they don't jerk. However, this would be very time consuming and considering the time we had to do the experiment, it wouldn't always be possible. * A new conical flask and measuring cylinder should be used after each experiment. This would solve the problem of having water in both pieces of the equipment after washing the equipment. However, this would obviously cost to much so wouldn't probably be able to be done. * I could to more repeats of each experiment at each molar. This would improve the reliability of each set of results, as the average would be more accurate. There are a number of ways in which you can extend the experiment, they are as follows: * You could use a bigger range of concentrations of acid. * You could use different reactants with hydrochloric acid, and compare how they react. For example, you could use magnesium. * You could use different types of acids, for example, you can use nitric acid or sulphuric acid. Then you could compare how the reactant reacted with each acid, and see whether the same conclusions applied. * You could use different variables, like temperature, and see whether the same conclusions applied. Nabeel Tariq 10Z1 Dr. Clayson ...read more.

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