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Investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction in the reaction of Sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Science Coursework - Preliminary work Aim: My aim is to investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction in the reaction of Sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. I will do this by repeating the experiment a number of times and changing the temperature. Plan: I will put Sodium thiosulphate in a test tube in a water bath of distilled water because it is purer than tap water and by using a Bunsen burner I will heat it to the desired temperature, which I will measure using a thermometer. Once the Sodium thiosulphate has been heated I will add it to the Hydrochloric acid, which will be in a conical flask. I will draw a cross on paper and place this under the conical flask, I will draw the cross using a black marker so that it is fully visible and the same cross will be used for each experiment. I will start timing the reaction soon as I have poured the sodium thiosulphate in, I will stop timing when the reaction has taken place, I will know this because a yellow precipitate will have formed and the cross that I drew earlier will have obscured. I will repeat the experiment for different temperatures that I will measure in 10 degrees Celsius increments. Prediction: I predict that when I heat the Sodium thiosulphate the faster the reaction will take place. I believe this prediction to be true because the particles in the reaction need to collide and heating the Sodium will mean that the particles move freely, because without a collision the reactants (sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid) cannot react. I believe the faster a particle, the more particle kinetic energy it will have so the more likely a particle from the sodium thiosulphate will react with the hydrochloric acid particles. ...read more.

Middle

and then see how the temperature changed against time in this way. Rates of Reaction Investigation Aim: My aim is to investigate how varying the concentration of a chemical affects the rate of reaction. Plan: I will vary the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid by adding different volumes of distilled water i.e. diluting it, I will use distilled water because it contains no impurities therefore no other reactions could take place that would affect the outcomes of the experiments. I will also decrease the volume of Sodium thiosulphate so that the total volume of the reactants stays the same, keeping them the same will mean that I will be able to see a pattern. I will pour the diluted Sodium thiosulphate into a conical flask for 1M Hydrochloric acid which I know works from my preliminary experiment, its volume will not be changed again keeping the total volume the same. I will again use the "disappearing cross" method, where I will draw a cross on a piece of paper and place it under the conical flask. As a yellow precipitate forms the cross will become obscure. I will keep the temperature the same for each experiment because I found this out from my preliminary experiment. To find out the rate of reaction I will time it using a stopwatch, this method was quite accurate as I found out from my preliminary experiment. Preliminary Experiment: A preliminary experiment (see Appendix) was carried out; this involved investigating how the rate of reaction is affected by temperature. In the experiment Sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid were also used, this was done to become more familiar with the reaction between these two substances. ...read more.

Conclusion

A solution to these problems is to use better, more suitable equipment. To determine when the reaction was over and the cross was no longer visible; using a light sensor, which passes a light beam through the conical flask where the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and HCl is taking place, could do this. The beam of light would go vertically down the conical flask and travel through the solution in the flask. A stopwatch would start as soon as the light beam has passed through the solution and when no more light can pass through the cloudy solution the stopwatch will stop. From this the result can be recorded and due to light being so fast the results would be very accurate and reliable. The results obtained in the investigation were reliable as the results that I obtained were consistent with each other. The information that I also obtained could also be justified through the collision theory, in that the rate of reaction would increase as a result of more random collisions taking place and an increase in chance that reactant molecules would have enough activation energy. Some other experiments I could do to further my investigation could be to extend the range of the concentrations I used. Having more results would enable me to spot a better trend or pattern. Below you can see the table of the extended concentrations I could use again keep the total volume of the reactants the same. Experiment Volume of hydrochloric acid (cm3) Volume of thiosulphate (cm3) Volume of diluted water (cm3) Total volume of reactants (cm3) 6 5 20 25 50 7 5 15 30 50 8 5 10 35 50 9 5 5 40 50 ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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