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Investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction of sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) and hydrochloric acid (2HCl).

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Introduction

Chemistry Investigation Introduction The aim of this experiment is to investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction of sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) and hydrochloric acid (2HCl) Plan Apparatus I will need: * Conical flasks (they can be washed out) to hold the reaction * A piece of paper with a cross on it, so I can see when it is obscured * Bunsen Burner to heat the reactants * Tripod to support the gauze * Gauze to heat the conical flask on * 2 measuring cylinders to measure out the acid and sodium thiosulphate * Safety Glasses to protect the eyes * Stopclock to time the experiment * 2 large beakers, which will contain the reactants before they are mixed. * A thermometer to measure the temperature * 10 ml Na2S2O3 for each reading * 40ml H2O for each reading * 5ml 2HCl for each reading I will do 3 readings for every 10�C rise in temperature from 20�C to 70�C. * Therefore I will need 180ml Na2S2O3, 720ml H2O and 90ml 2HCl. Diagram This is how I will set up my experiment: Method/procedure This is how I will carry out the experiment: I will set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram on the previous page. ...read more.

Middle

If the two reactants have more kinetic energy, then their molecules will vibrate with greater force, and in a larger area. Therefore the probability of a reaction occurring between two atoms is much greater, so the reaction will occur more quickly. Using Key Science - Chemistry, by Eileen Ramsden, I predict that the effect of temperature on reaction speed is not linear - for every 10�C rise in temperature, the rate of the reaction will double. To show this, I will draw graphs of the rate of reaction (1/time) against temperature (in �C). I am recording from 20� to 70�C because, to get below 20�C would be inconvenient, and, if I did it up to 80�C, it is possible that the acid would start boiling (HCl boils at 84.8�C). Here is the equation for the reaction: Na2S2O3(aq)+ 2HCl(aq) --> 2NaCl(aq) + SO2(g)+ S(s) + H2O(l) Sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid --> Sodium chloride + sulphur dioxide + sulphur + water. The SO2 dissolves in the water. Results/Obtaining Evidence Temperature Time (seconds) Averages Rate Aim Start Finish Temp. Temp.2 Time (1/time x 1000) 20 26 27 230 27 26 230 19.12 25 26 224 26 26 26 235 26 30 32 31 125 31.5 31 122 26.44 32 29 127 30 31 30 112 30 40 43 40 70 41 ...read more.

Conclusion

* The results could have been made more accurate by taking further readings. * The method of telling when the cross had been obscured was vulnerable to mistakes. * This could have been solved by using a colourimeter to gauge the exact amount of light passing through the solution. * It was difficult to start the stopclock, add the acid, and take the temperature at the same time. This may have caused some minor inaccuracies. * The stopclocks did not seem entirely reliable. This could have again caused minor inaccuracies. * This could have been solved by bringing a watch. * When the acid was added, it was a different temperature. This will have had a cooling effect on the sodium thiosulphate, before the reaction's heat counterbalanced it. This is not a major problem, but shows that the temperature changes cannot be used to find how much heat energy was exchanged in the reaction. There was not a large cooling effect due to the acid or surrounding air temperature as the sodium thiosulphate and HCl solution was mainly water, which has a high specific heat capacity. A different way of doing the experiment would been to have heated the two solutions separately in an oven set to the temperature of the experiment, then to have added the solutions together, into a container on a balance and calculated the weight lost for every 10 seconds of reaction. Thomas Burton ...read more.

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