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Investigate how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

My aim is to investigate how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The word and chemical equation which I have constructed for the experiment is: Calcium + hydrochloric calcium + water + carbon Carbonate acid chloride dioxide. CaCo3 + 2HCL CaCl2 + H2 O + CO2 Reactant Product I chose this reaction because it is easy to control as the production of carbon dioxide being produced can be monitored with ease. Additionally the amount of carbon dioxide given out can me measured accurately and fairly quickly. From this equation, it is evident to us that hydrochloric acid has a large effect on the reaction. The calcium displaces the hydrogen from the hydrochloric acid which results in calcium chloride (marble) in being formed I chose concentration as the variable because of its ease in changing in comparison to the other variables - temperature, surface area, concentration and catalyst. I did not choose the variable to be temperature because it is difficult to maintain and requires precise measurements. The surface area of the marble chips would too be too difficult to measure. Additionally catalysts was not the variable I chose, because this would only give me two results - whether the rate of reaction is faster with the catalyst or whether it is faster without the catalyst. I chose not to keep the concentration constant because it is easy to change and in comparison to these three other variables I think that it will be the quickest and most accurate variable. ...read more.

Middle

* Trough - Enables carbon dioxide gas not to escape so that it can be measured. * Clamp - To securely hold the gas burette. * Gas burette - To contain the carbon dioxide gas so that it can be measured. Method * We filled up the trough and gas burette with water to the top. * Then we filled the conical flask with hydrochloric acid of the range: 20, 25 and 30 cm cubed. * Following this the gas burette was placed on a clamp and was placed facing downwards so that the open end was inside and surrounded by water. * We then placed the delivery tube in a position where it was directly beneath the gas burette and also was going through the bung. * The different sizes of chips were then weighed so that the different sizes of chips could add up to 1 gram. We found that equivalent to 1g was 1 large chip, 3 medium chips and 6 small chips. Furthermore the chips were dropped in the conical flask and the bung was immediately placed on the flask while the stopwatch was started. * After that we recorded the time taken for 50cm3 of carbon dioxide given out by stopping the timer when the burette had been filled up with carbon dioxide and therefore 50 cm3 of water had been pushed out. Results Size Of Chip Size and Quantity Of Marble Chip Time Taken For 50 cm3 Of Carbon Dioxide Gas To Be Released (mins) 1 Large chip 4.22 3 Medium chips 3.21 6 Small chips 2.23 N.B. ...read more.

Conclusion

44 48.8 46 150 8 7.3 8.5 17.5 28.5 19.6 47.2 50 47.9 160 8.8 7.9 8.8 20 30 21.6 48.4 50 170 9.5 8.5 9.3 22.5 32.7 24.3 50 180 10.1 8.9 9.7 24.7 34.5 26.4 190 11 9.6 10.7 26.4 35 28.8 200 12 9.9 10.8 27.5 36.1 30.8 210 12.7 10.7 11.6 29.6 38.1 33.1 220 12.8 11.3 12.3 31.4 41 35.2 230 14 12.5 13 33.2 43.4 37.8 240 15.2 13.7 14 34.9 45 39.8 250 15.8 14.5 15.1 36.5 47.8 42.3 260 16.5 15 15.9 39.3 49.3 44.8 270 16.8 15.7 15.9 41 49.6 46.8 280 17.5 16.4 16.3 42.5 50 49 290 17.8 16.5 17 45 50 300 18.5 16.8 17.9 48 310 18.7 17.1 18.1 50 320 19 17.8 18.5 330 19.9 18.7 18.9 340 22 20.1 20.3 350 23 20.1 21.5 360 23.3 22.5 21.9 370 23.7 22.7 22.4 380 24 23.4 22.8 390 24.7 25.6 23.2 400 26.3 28.6 25.9 410 28 28.9 26.9 420 28.4 29.1 28 430 28.8 30 29.9 440 29 31.2 30.2 450 29.6 32.1 30.9 460 31.6 33.4 31.6 470 32.9 35.1 32.5 480 35.2 36 33.9 490 35.9 36.5 35 500 36.5 37.2 35.8 510 38 38.1 36.7 520 39.1 39.5 38.1 530 40.2 40.2 39.9 540 41.7 42.1 41.6 550 43.7 44.1 43.5 560 44.9 45.3 45 570 47.1 46.9 46.2 580 48.3 48.2 47.9 590 49.5 50 49.3 600 50 50 Average Results Concentration (molar) Average time (sec) 0.5 597 1 293 2 160 3 113 4 73 GCSE Chemistry Coursework Autumn Term 2003 Ravi Dewji 11S ...read more.

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