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Investigate How the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Rate Of Reaction, when Reacted with Marble Chips

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Introduction

An Experiment to Investigate How the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Rate Of Reaction, when Reacted with Marble Chips Planning I am conducting an experiment to investigate how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction, when reacting hydrochloric acid with marble. Calcium Carbonate Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Chloride Carbon Dioxide Water CaCO3 (s) 2HCl (aq) CaCl2 CO2 H2O There are many different factors to take into account. These factors consist of; the temperature of the reactants, the surface area of the marble, the volume of hydrochloric acid, the mass of marble, the concentration of hydrochloric acid and also whether catalysts are present or not. I have chosen to investigate the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, and so all the other factors must remain constant, because of the possibility of the factors affecting the rate of reaction, which would cause bias. To keep the temperature constant, I will put the test tube containing the reactants in a water bath, which will remain at an unvarying temperature. To keep the surface area of the marble the same, I will use a set weight and quantity of chips. ...read more.

Middle

I will also twist the plunger of the gas syringe slightly to verify that it can move with ease - as this could affect the final reading. So that I am as safe as is possible throughout the experiments, I will be wearing safety goggles whenever I am handling hydrochloric acid, or am around this acid, and I will also have my hair tied back, as the acid is an irritant. I am also only experimenting using a concentration of 2.5M, because above this it is too dangerous to conduct in the school. Analysis of Results Volume of Gas Produced in 60 Seconds (cm3) Concentration (M) 1st experiment 2nd experiment Average Rate (cm3/minute) 0.5 2 4 3 3 1.0 17 22 19.5 19.5 1.5 39 43 41 41 2.0 56 59 57.5 57.5 2.5 65 75 70 70 It can be seen that the results above show that as the concentration increases, the rate of reaction also increases. This is because in a more diluted acid, there are not as many acid particles. However in a more concentrated acid, there are more acid particles. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another problem I came across was that it was extremely difficult to measure out exactly 2 gram masses of the marble chips, and even when I did, the surface areas would not be the same - even though I used the same quantity of chips. This could be corrected by using marble cubes - which would all have the same surface area and mass, increasing accuracy greatly in this area. However, it is very expensive to use these, and we were unable to use them. These are the reasons for why I think my results were so unreliable, with suggestions to resolve them. I could also expand my investigation. I could use an extended range of concentrations with smaller intervals between them. For example 0.25M, 0.5M, 0.75M, 1.0M, 1.25M, 1.50M, 1.75M etc. up to 5.0M could be used. Although this would take an extremely long time, my results would be very precise, and would give a wider range of results. Generally speaking, I feel that the experiment has been quite successful, despite not being able to prove direct proportion. However more accurate methods of carrying out the stages have been found, meaning that if I were to repeat the experiment, I would be able to produce a much higher accuracy of data. Sally Andrews 11C Page 1 ...read more.

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