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Investigate how the level of concentration affects the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

PLANNING Introduction In this investigation I am going to investigate how the level concentration affects the rate of reaction. Concentration - The number of particles in a certain volume. Reaction - A chemical process, which involves particles with energy colliding to form new substances. Rate - The speed of the reaction occurring. There are many factors, which can affect the rate of reaction, the main factors are: * pH - The acidity or alkalinity of a substance. * Surface area - The total amount of area on the outside of a substance. The more surface area exposed, means that there is a greater surface to collide against. * Temperature - The thermal heat that is surrounding the substance, which could affect the reactivity of the substance. The more heat that is being applied then the particles are going to move faster causing more collisions and a faster rate of reaction. * Concentration - The amount of particles of a substance in a certain volume. The more amounts of particles of one substance greatly increase the amount of collisions that can be made. * Catalyst - If a catalyst were used then it would greatly reduce the activation energy. This is done by the catalyst aiding the particles to react. ...read more.

Middle

As you can see a high concentration is more likely to collide more and react because firstly there are more particles in a volume meaning that there would be more collisions between the particles. The increased activity creates more collisions between the particles, creating a faster rate of reaction. I predict that the graphs for the reaction will look like this. I predict that the graph for the rate of reaction will look like this. PRELIMINARY WORK The following results are from the preliminary work, which was carried out. Below: We use our work to determine what volume of hydrochloric acid to use. We did not want to use too much as the experiment could be too quick to time, and we did not want the experiment to be too time consuming because we would not have enough time to carry out other experiments. Volume of Hydrochloric Acid (cm3) Volume of Sodium Thiosulphate (cm3) Time taken (seconds) 10 60 29.52 15 60 28.42 20 60 27.76 25 60 27.56 From this preliminary work we decided to use 20cm3, as this seemed suitable. Below: We used 20cm3 of water to get an idea of how long the experiments were going to take. ...read more.

Conclusion

Light intensity was not kept the same, but steps were taken to keep the intensity roughly the same. Strenuous efforts were made to ensure the minimal effect of the table being jogged whilst experiments were taking place. Judging when the X had disappeared proved to be the major problem; at least two observers were used to accurately determine when the X had disappeared. If the X was judged to have disappeared before it had then it would affect the overall time, the same applies for judging after it had disappeared. Improvement to the current method and plan can be made to make the investigation more accurate. More concentration levels would make the investigation more accurate and give sureness of results than a limited range of concentrations. The experiment could be carried out in water baths; this would ensure that temperature is kept constant. Light sensors could be used to accurately judge when the X disappears from sight. The sensors would also automatically time the experiment, which would make the investigation very accurate. However the school does not have a light sensor for use. Clean conical flasks could be used to avoid contamination as used ones are washed out and then reused. The investigation should be carried out on one day; this would decrease the risk of human error in the obtaining of reactants because the reactants can have different molar values. - 1 - ...read more.

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