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Investigate how the rate of reaction changes with the surface area.

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Introduction

To investigate how the rate of reaction changes with the surface area Aim: To find out how the rate of chemical reaction of marble chippings mixed with hydrochloric acid changes with the surface area Equipment: Gas Syringe Clamp & Stand Beaker Hydrochloric Acid Conical Flask Stop Watch Marble Chips Rubber Bung Delivery Tube Weighing Scales Plan: Method: Set up the equipment as shown in the diagram. 1) Measure and then pour 50cm? of hydrochloric acid into the conical flask 2) Put the gas syringe in the clamp 3) Connect the side of the delivery tube without a rubber bung to the gas syringe 4) Weigh the marble using some scales and then put it into the conical flask (make sure you write down the weight) 5) Quickly put the rubber bung side of the delivery tube on the conical flask 6) Start your stopwatch 7) Write down your results for every 10seconds until the gas syringe reaches 100cm? 8) Put your results in a table 9) Do the same for marble chippings (make sure it is the same weight as the marble in step 4) Variables: The variables in this experiment are the volume of carbon dioxide released and the surface area of the marble. ...read more.

Middle

A catalyst can save money because less fuel is used. Concentration - If there is more of a substance in a system there is a higher chance that molecules will collide and speed up the rate of the reaction. If there is less of something... there will be fewer collisions and the reaction will probably happen at a slower speed. Temperature - When you raise the temperature of a system the molecules bounce around a lot more (because they have more energy). When they bounce around more they are more likely to collide. That means they are also more likely to combine. When you lower the temperature the molecules are slower and collide less. That temperature drop lowers the rate of the reaction. Pressure - Pressure affects the rate of reaction especially when you look at gases. When you increase the pressure the molecules have less space to move around. That greater concentration makes them collide with each other more often. When you decrease the pressure molecules don't hit each other as much and there are fewer collisions. That lower pressure lowers the rate of reaction. All this information is relevant to my investigation, as I now know what would happen to the molecules when using different variables. ...read more.

Conclusion

When I mixed hydrochloric acid with marble chippings each surface of each crystal is exposed. But with the larger piece of marble many of the crystals are not exposed until the outer crystals on the marble have dissolved. This fits in my hypothesis too. The graph shows that the line is steeper for the larger surface area. I conclude that as the surface area is larger the rate of chemical reaction increases. Graph on graph paper. Evaluation: In my opinion the investigation went OK. I think I did take the sufficient amount of reading but of course it would have helped if I had another set of results and made an average to be more accurate... I had a few anomalous results these may have been because the conical flask could have got shaken, which would have speeded up the reaction but I have circled the anomalous results on my graph. These can be explained by simply a poor reading. If I had to do the investigation again I would do the experiment several times and set and average for more accurate results. There are many possible extensions to this experiment. I could try to use other carbonates and react them with hydrochloric acid. I could try different acids also and see what happens. All these could help me broaden my knowledge on rates of reaction. ...read more.

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