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Investigate how varying the surface area of marble chips differs their rate of reaction with Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

GCSE Chemistry coursework When Hydrochloric acid mixes with marble chips a reaction takes place and gas is given off, we are going to investigate factors that vary how the gas is given off. Aim I am going to investigate how varying the surface area of marble chips differs their rate of reaction with Hydrochloric acid. Variables I am going to make a table of the different varible we can use for our experiment. Level of Hydrochloric acid This must stay the same through out the experiment, we will use 20cm� of hydrochloric acid each time we repeat the experiment and we will measure it out using a measuring cylinder. By keeping the level of hydrochloric acid constant we are then able to focus purely on how surface area affects rate of reaction Size of marble chips We are going to use the same mass of marble chips each time we repeat the experiment but we are going to use three different size marble chips small, medium and large. This will give us 3 clear differences in size dor us to use in our experiment Mass of marble chip We will use 2g of each type of marble chip and we will measure it out using scales. As we are only investigating surface area we will keep the mass of the marble chips constant. Prediction I predict that by increasing the surface area of marble chips the rate at which hydrochloric acid reacts with these marble chips will increase too, thus the greater the surface area of the marble chips the quicker the gas is given off. ...read more.

Middle

Clamp Small, medium and large sized Marble chips 2.0mol Hydrochloric acid Measuring cylinder Gas syringe Gas syringe holder Stop clock Scales Safety glasses Diagram Preliminary work We conducted a number of preliminary experiments to decide on which variables to use, firstly: 1. 5g of small, medium, large marble chips, and 50 cm� of hydrochloric acid. Small 10s 39cm 20s 72cm 30s + 110 cm, middle of syringe had been pushed out unable to record any results 40s 50s Medium 10s 24cm 20s 56cm 30s 88cm 40s +110cm middle of syringe had been pushed out unable to record any results 50s From conducting these two experiments it is clear to see that the rate of reaction is clearly too fast as already over 100cm3 of gas has been produced before 50s has passed. We have to limit the two variables here. 2. 3g of small, medium, large marble chips, and 20 cm� of hydrochloric acid. Small 10s 24cm 20s 57cm 30s 87cm 40s 103cm 50s 110cm+ Medium 10s 25cm 20s 44cm 30s 65cm 40s 78cm 50s 92cm Large 10s 22cm 20s 40cm 30s 58cm 40s 70cm 50s 83cm From conducting these tests it can be clear to see that these variables allow a wider variety of results but with the small marble chips more than 110 cm was produced before 50s was up so 1 of the variables needs to be lowered. 3. 2g of small, medium, large marble chips, and 20 cm� of hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

2.07g). The Gas syringe only had a capacity of 110 cm thus only allowing us to conduct the experiment for a limited time and not allowing us to make any further observations of the results, e.g. whether or not the same amount of gas was produced each time regardless of surface area. My prediction regarding doubling the surface area doubles the rate of reaction is in conclusive as there is no way of defining the surface area of the marble chips, they were just either small, medium or large, and in many cases the marble chips within the small group differed in size as with the medium and large groups. Improvements Several improvements I can make to my experiment are, using a large gas syringe to allow more time and to gain a wider span of results. Having the facility of finding out how to define the surface area of marble chips to be able make more accurate conclusions and be able to find out more observations in results. We could've recorded the amount of gas being produced every 5 seconds as opposed to 10 to have gained more results and therefore more accuracy. Another experiment we may carry out could by how varying the concentration of hydrochloric acid we use as will affect the rate of reaction with marble chips. If we varied the concentration of acid as well as the surface area of the marble chips we would gain a lot more results and may be able to make further conclusions. E.g. would the amount of gas given off stay the same if the surface area wereb changed? ...read more.

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