• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15

Investigate the effect of altitude training on the density of blood.

Extracts from this document...


An Investigation to find out the Effect of Altitude Training on the Density Mock Blood Rikin Patel Candidate Number- 1110 Centre Number- 63255 Aim The aim of this coursework was to investigate the effect of altitude training on the density of blood. Introduction Red blood cells, also known as Erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and are a body's principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. The other type of blood cells in the blood are the white blood cells, which are actually immune cells. Red blood cells deliver oxygen via hemoglobin, a complex molecule containing four haem groups that temporarily link to oxygen molecules in the lungs and release the oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin also carries a waste product, carbon dioxide back from the tissues. Red blood cells consist of almost 90% hemoglobin; the heme is what gives blood its red colour. Myoglobin is similar to haemoglobin, but acts as a store for oxygen in muscle cells. Human red blood cells have a flattened ovate shape, depressed in the center. This shape is used because it optimizes for the exchange of oxygen with the surrounding cells. The cells are flexible so as to fit through tiny capillaries, where they release their oxygen. The diameter of a typical red blood cell is 6-8 �m. Below is a diagram of a red blood cell: Red blood cells are continuously being produced in the red bone marrow of large bones. This production can be stimulated by a hormone called erythropoietin. Red blood cells are broken down by a process called Hemolysis. Red blood cells normally live for 110 to 120 days and then die. When they die, they are broken down. The old cells swell up to a sphere and are engulfed by phagocytes, they are destroyed and their materials are released into the blood. The hemoglobin is eventually excreted. ...read more.


In the absence of oxygen hydrogen cannot be disposed of by combination with oxygen, producing water. If water cannot be formed than reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) cannot be recycled therefore the krebs cycle and electron transport chain cannot occur. Thus no ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation. The reason that the krebs cycle and electron transport chain cannot carry on because these two processes require hydrogen, which is carried by the NAD. So if there is no NAD to carry the hydrogen away from the krebs cycle then no hydrogen is available to be taken to the electron transport chain. Therefore if there are no hydrogen ions to be passed down the hydrogen carriers and electron carriers then no ATP will be produced. There are two type of anaerobic respiration that can take place, one is the ethanol pathway and the other, which takes place in human beings, is the lactate pathway. In this process the pyruvate acts as a hydrogen acceptor and is eventually converted to lactate. It is converted using an enzyme called lactate dehydrogenase. The lactate pathway uses two hydrogen ions, which are carried by the NAD. The hydrogen ions combine with the pyruvate to form lactate. The change from glucose to pyruvate produces two molecules of ATP. Below is a diagram that shows the lactate pathway that takes place in all mammalian respiration: The purpose of this reaction to continue some release of energy even thought there is a lack of energy present. Once the lactate is produced it is transported to the liver were it is converted into carbon dioxide and water, this take's place in the presence of oxygen. Hypothesis and Prediction My prediction is that Blood type C will be the densest. This is because the blood that is used for this group is from an athlete who has trained aerobically at altitude fro 8 months. ...read more.


The blood drop shape depends on the pipette. This is because a pipette with a larger nib will produce a larger drop of blood. This would have a larger surface area, therefore it would be slowed down and visa versa for a pipette with a thinner nib. This factor could be over come by using a syringe with a needle. Having a needle present will naturally produce the same size drop. Therefore there would be the same size drops of blood all the time thus increasing the consistency of the results. Some other factors that could affect the results could be errors in the timing; this would obviously either increase or decrease the time taken for the blood drop to pass through the copper sulphate. The volume of blood drop will also have a significant affect on the results, thus the value of the t-tests. The volume has an impact on the results because the larger the volume the more resistance there is between the blood and the copper sulphate; this would slow down the drop of blood. Another factor would be if the blood drop touched the sides of the test tube, this is a factor for the same reason as the volume. It would slow down the drop of blood due to an increased amount of resistance. To improve this I could use a test tube that has a larger diameter. This would cut down the likelihood of the blood drop touching the side. Another improvement would be to drop the blood from as close to the centre of the test tube as possible. The quality of the results that they are relatively accurate this is because there are very few of anomalies, the main one that I can see is the third and fourth figures in the mock blood A, they are 8 and 7.7 respectfully. As there are hardly any irregularities in the results this would increase the reliability of the results. Thus allowing me to come to firmer conclusions. - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

A detailed account of an investigation using mock blood. Good background information and clear presentation of statistical analysis. A level language used throughout. However, a slightly muddled grasp of concepts in places and a few factual errors.

Marked by teacher Adam Roberts 30/07/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology Revision notes - Human Biology

    5 star(s)

    eat more because they do heavier work and are bigger Level of Activity People who are more active need more energy so they eat more Religion Religions can restrict what you can eat and when you can eat Dietary Needs Your body doesn't get enough of certain foods, you need

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Effects of Exercise on the Heart Rate

    4 star(s)

    Even though another person was counting the beats the exerciser may have not kept in time with the beats. A way to make sure the person would be kept at the same pace throughout the trial would be to carry out the test on a treadmill instead of steps.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How Does Lifestyle Affect the Circulatory System?

    3 star(s)

    which if left without treatment causes serious heart attacks and can kill. If your alcohol consumption exceeds one or two drinks a day, you can raise your blood pressure and increase the levels of fatty in your blood stream. Having a high blood pressure, which is also called hypertension, can lead to you getting a heart attack.

  2. Human biology short notes

    Production of melanin Butter, Liver, Carrots Vitamin B Formation of connective tissues (Prevents Beri beri) Liver, Eggs Vitamin C Prevents gum diseases (scurvy, gignitives) Heals wounds Citric foods, Raw vegetables Vitamin D Uptake of calcium ions in the small intestine Butter, Milk Carbohydrates * Monosaccharide simple soluble unit * Disaccharide-

  1. To investigate how the heart rate and breathing rate increase with exercise.Scientific KnowledgeAerobic respiration ...

    Athletes are very aware of this "pain barrier". If the lactic acid level is allowed to build up too high, it will actually inhibit (slow down the action of) some of the enzymes involved in respiration, causing a drop in energy supply and eventually the collapse of the person who is exercising After exercise the body needs to recover.

  2. An experiment to investigate the rate of anaerobic respiration of yeast in various respiratory ...

    This produces less energy, but keeps the yeast alive. In aerobic conditions when the yeast is mixed with sugar or glucose solution, it soon starts to respire. The yeast uses sugar and oxygen dissolved in the water to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy by aerobic respiration.

  1. Experiment to Investigate Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration in Yeast

    I decided to try a 40?C experiment because that particular temperature was about half of the boiled water's temperature coming out of the kettle. This produced a quicker rate of respiration that the 60?C experiment. I also tried a 20?C experiment, but this had a lower rate of respiration than the 40?C experiment.

  2. The Mammalian Heart and Circulatory System

    contractions, can bring about an increase or decrease in the rate of contractions when appropriate. The wall of the heart is made up of three layers: the endocardium, which is smooth tissue inside the heart to help blood flow, the myocardium, which is the striped cardiac muscle and strong pumping

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work