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Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction.

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Introduction

Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction. Introduction We must produce a piece of coursework investigating the affect of changing the concentration of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction. The rate of reaction is a change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time. There are five factors, which can affect the rate of reaction, according to the collision theory of reacting particles: * Temperature * Concentration * Pressure * Surface area * Catalyst I have chosen to investigate the effect that different concentrations of catalyst (Copper sulphate) have on this reaction. I am going to record the Hydrogen given off in the solution. Concentration: The concentration of a substance, normally a solution, is the amount in a given volume. Concentration= amount volume In a higher concentration solution there are more particles to react therefore there are more collisions. As a reaction depends on collisions happening, more collisions lead to faster reaction rate. If I was doing a reaction with acid and we double the number of collisions and therefore are likely to double the reaction rate. Low concentration High concentration Planning I was given to work with: Zinc (10x10 cm) Sulphuric acid Catalyst- Copper sulphate (solid/solution) Zinc is 6th in the reactivity series, so it is a reactive metal, and reacts well with a dilute acid. ...read more.

Middle

4. Dilute Copper Sulphate (Same order) Time (min) Amount of hydrogen given off (cm3) 1 0 (no hydrogen given off) 2 1.5 3 4.5 4 8 5 11.5 I looked at the table of results and found that using solid copper sulphate gave off more hydrogen than dilute copper sulphate. I also found that my prediction was right. I decided then that I use solid copper sulphate. I changed the grams of the copper and the volume of water. I also decided to only do up to 3 minutes instead of 5 minutes because we were running out of time. Experiment 1 Sulphuric acid (ml) Copper Sulphate (g) Zinc (cm) Water (ml) 1. 20 1.5 5 13.5 2. 20 2 5 13 3. 20 2.5 5 12.5 4. 20 3 5 12 5. 20 3.5 5 11.5 6. 20 4 5 11 Results 1. Time (min) Amount of hydrogen given off (cm3) 1 3 2 10 2 22.5 Average amount of gas given off: 11.83 cm3 2. Time (min) Amounts of hydrogen given off (cm3) 1 8 2 13.5 3 19.5 Average amount of gas given off: 13.7 cm3 3. Time (min) Amount of hydrogen given off (cm3) 1 2.5 2 7 3 13 Average amount of gas given off: 7.5 cm3 4. Time (min) Amounts of hydrogen given off (cm3) 1 3.5 2 8.5 3 14 Average amount of gas given off: 8.5 cm3 5. ...read more.

Conclusion

Amount of hydrogen given off (cm3) 1 3 2 8 3 18 Average amount of gas given off: 9.6 cm3 When I did the experiment twice again, it showed that it followed the general pattern and their averages were approximately the same so they were correct. Evaluation I found out that more hydrogen is given off when the catalyst is in solid form than liquid form. I also found that the more catalyst you put in the more hydrogen that should be given off. However, two of the experiments did not follow the general pattern because the hydrogen given off was higher or lower than expected. The experiment with 0.16g of copper sulphate average was 5.63 cm3, while the experiment with 0.15g of copper sulphate average was 8.83 cm3. This did not follow the general pattern because the average was meant to be higher than the 0.15g of copper sulphate experiment. The experiment with 0.19g copper sulphate was the same as well. Its average was lower than expected as well. I thought think that the surface area in our method might have limited me. Because the zinc all had to be flat surfaced and not on top of one another, but I had to be careful to check that it was not. I think that the copper sulphate would have been probably not the weigh that we wanted, because when we put it into the sulphuric acid, there were still bits left on the paper we used to carry it from weigh scale to weigh it. We could have improved it. ...read more.

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