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Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of carbon dioxide produced by a reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips (calcium carbonate).

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework 2004 To investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of carbon dioxide produced by a reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips (calcium carbonate) Mark Millington 10P TEACHER: Mr R Dickens Planning experimental procedures Aim In this coursework I will be investigating to see how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction with marble chips. Hypothesis Part 1 I predict that the rate of reaction between the acid and the marble chips (calcium carbonate) will increase as the acid concentration increases. This is because in an acid solution with a greater concentration there are more particles present in the same volume of acid. This means that there are more particles to collide and react with the calcium carbonate. However the rate of reaction should decrease as the reaction proceeds because the hydrochloric acid molecules have been reacted to form water and carbon dioxide meaning that the concentration of the acid decreases as the reaction proceeds. 'This should make the graph of the reaction curved. The curve will start off steep, and will then start to curve towards the X-axis. The curve is where the reaction slowed down'. Part 2 On another set of graphs, which show the volume of carbon dioxide produced against 1/time, the volume of carbon dioxide produced should not be inversely proportional to time. This would be shown on the graph with a curve that starts of steep close to the Y-Axis, and as time progresses would curve away from the Y-Axis and towards the X-Axis. Part 3 'The increase in concentration of the acid and the initial reaction rate should be directly proportional.' This means that should the concentration of the acid be doubled then the time taken to produce the same volume of carbon dioxide should be approximately halved. 'This is because there are twice as many molecules in a given volume of acid. ...read more.

Middle

The diagram below shows how the equipment was setup. Preliminary work Below are the results of the preliminary work. O.5M Time (secs) Minutes Volume of CO2 produced (cm�) 30 0.5 3 60 1.0 4 90 1.5 5 120 2.0 6 150 2.5 7 180 3.0 8 210 3.5 9 240 4.0 11 270 4.5 14 300 5.0 17 330 5.5 19 360 6.0 21 390 6.5 24 420 7.0 27 450 7.5 31 480 8.0 36 510 8.5 40 540 9.0 45 570 9.5 49 600 10.0 55 1.0M Time (secs) Minutes Volume of CO2 produced (cm�) 30 0.5 3 60 1.0 6 90 1.5 10 120 2.0 13 150 2.5 20 180 3.0 23 210 3.5 40 240 4.0 47 270 4.5 53 300 5.0 65 330 5.5 73 360 6.0 84 390 6.5 94 420 7.0 103 450 7.5 113 480 8.0 123 510 8.5 130 540 9.0 137 570 9.5 147 600 10.0 157 2.0M Time (secs) Minutes Volume of CO2 produced (cm�) 30 0.5 10 60 1.0 40 90 1.5 65 120 2.0 95 150 2.5 125 180 3.0 155 210 3.5 180 240 4.0 215 270 4.5 240 300 5.0 260 330 5.5 282 360 6.0 305 390 6.5 323 420 7.0 340 450 7.5 355 480 8.0 373 510 8.5 388 540 9.0 403 570 9.5 417 600 10.0 430 3.0M Time (secs) Minutes Volume of CO2 produced (cm�) 30 0.5 25 60 1.0 90 90 1.5 160 120 2.0 215 150 2.5 260 180 3.0 310 210 3.5 340 240 4.0 380 270 4.5 405 300 5.0 428 330 5.5 450 360 6.0 470 390 6.5 480 420 7.0 500 450 7.5 480 8.0 510 8.5 540 9.0 570 9.5 600 10.0 4.0M Time (secs) Minutes Volume of CO2 produced (cm�) 30 0.5 60 60 1.0 130 90 1.5 205 120 2.0 265 150 2.5 315 180 3.0 360 210 3.5 395 240 4.0 420 270 4.5 445 300 5.0 450 330 5.5 450 360 6.0 470 ...read more.

Conclusion

This again would have produced inaccurate results which probably lead to the disproving of the third part of the hypothesis. Another limitation of the data was that when I dropped the marble chips into the conical flask. As soon as the marbles came into contact with the acid, a reaction would have occurred and since the bung was being placed on flask some of the carbon dioxide would have escaped out of the flask into the atmosphere and not into the measuring cylinder filled with water. A final limitation of the data was that the marble chips were of the same weight but different surface areas. The change in surface area would have caused the rate of reaction to increase. To improve the results I would change the method of conducting this experiment. Firstly instead of using an upturned measuring cylinder filled with water to catch the carbon dioxide produced from the reaction, I would use a gas syringe. Finally instead of using marble chips that are found, I would use specially prepared marble chips (if they are available) which have the same surface area. I would also probably repeat the experiment again a second time to see if there was something wrong with my results that I had obtain from conducting the experiment the first time, and then take an average of the results. Extensions to the investigation If I was to extend this experiment, then I would want see if the reactions slow down in the same places at higher concentrations. I would also try the experiment with other acids such as nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Also as an extension to the investigation I would want to see how the use of different carbonates such as copper carbonate. Finally I would want to see how surface area affects the rate of reaction and if there is a relationship between rate of reaction and see if there is a relationship between surface area and the volume of carbon dioxide produced. ...read more.

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