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Investigate the effect of concentration of acid on the rate of the reaction

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework Aim - to investigate the effect of concentration of acid varies on the rate of the reaction Background Knowledge and Theory The equation of this reaction of this experiment I am going to investigate is like this: 2HCL (aq) + CaCO3 (s) --> CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) Hydrochloric acid + Calcium carbonate --> Calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide Because of carbon dioxide have given out and it is a gas, the product can be collected by a gas syringe and measure the rate of reaction. (i.e. volume over time) Independent variables: 1. Concentration 2. Temperature 3. Surface Area 4. Air pressure 5. Catalyst I am going to investigate the concentration on the rate of reaction. For substances that may react, two things are necessary before they will react. * For reactions involving more than one substance, the particles must collide before any reaction is possible. * Not all collisions result in a reaction. Particles must collide with a certain minimum amount of energy, called the activation energy, before a reaction can happen. Molecules with low kinetic energy will probably just bounce off each other when they collide; molecules with high kinetic energy are more likely to have sufficient energy to break bonds and react. 1. Concentration - higher the concentration, faster the rate of reaction, because higher the concentration there are more particles in the solution, so there are more collisions. 2. Temperature - higher the temperature, faster the rate of reaction, because higher the temperature, the particles have more energy to move faster to collide more faster. 3. Surface Area - bigger the surface area, faster the rate of reaction, because bigger the surface area, there are more exposed on the particles for collision. 4. Air pressure - higher the air pressure, faster the rate of reaction, because higher the air pressure, the volume of the solution will smaller, but the number of particles hasn't change, the concentration increase, so the rate of reaction will increase. ...read more.

Middle

11.0 15.7 19.7 22.5 24.7 26.0 27.3 28.3 29.0 29.5 The reading is in (cm�) Time Taken (s) Volume of CO2 produce (cm�) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Concentration=1.0mole/dm� 25.0 32.0 37.0 41.0 44.0 48.0 51.0 53.0 55.0 56.0 Mass of marble chips=2g 25.0 30.0 34.0 38.0 41.0 44.0 47.0 49.0 51.0 53.0 Volume of HCL=10cm� 30.0* 37.0* 42.0* 46.0* 49.0* 52.0* 55.0* 57.0* 59.0* 61.0* Average (cm�) 25.0 31.0 35.5 39.5 42.5 46.0 49.0 51.0 53.0 54.5 The reading is in (cm�) Time Taken (s) Volume of CO2 produce (cm�) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Concentration=1.5mole/dm� 45.0 52.0 57.0 61.0 66.0 69.0 72.0 75.0 77.0 79.0 Mass of marble chips=2g 40.0 51.0 58.0 64.0 69.0 74.0 77.0 79.0 80.0 81.0 Volume of HCL=10cm� 39.0 49.0 56.0 62.0 67.0 71.0 74.0 76.0 77.0 78.0 Average (cm�) 41.3 50.7 57.0 62.3 67.3 71.3 74.3 76.7 78.0 79.3 The reading is in (cm�) Time Taken (s) Volume of CO2 produce (cm�) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Concentration=2.0mole/dm� 60.0 68.0 75.0 82.0 88.0 92.0 95.0 99.0 Mass of marble chips=2.00g 57.0 68.0 77.0 85.0 91.0 96.0 100.0 Volume of HCL=10.0cm� 63.0 72.0 79.0 85.0 89.0 93.0 96.0 99.0 Average (cm�) 60.0 69.3 77.0 84.0 89.3 93.7 97.0 99.0 The reading is in (cm�) Time Taken (s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Concentration=0.25mole/dm� 4.8 6.7 8.0 9.0 9.8 10.3 10.8 11.3 11.8 12.3 Concentration=0.50mole/dm� 11.0 15.7 19.7 22.5 24.7 26.0 27.3 28.3 29.0 29.5 Concentration=1.0mole/dm� 25.0 31.0 35.5 39.5 42.5 46.0 49.0 51.0 53.0 54.5 Concentration=1.5mole/dm� 41.3 50.7 57.0 62.3 67.3 71.3 74.3 76.7 78.0 79.3 Concentration=2.0mole/dm� 60.0 69.3 77.0 84.0 89.3 93.7 97.0 99.0 Analysis Fig.1 Fig.2 In this two graphs on fig.1, which is the three experiments I have did for my concentration 0.25mole/dm�. And the fig.2 is the gradient of both three averages. ...read more.

Conclusion

* We can use a digital syringe, which can accurately in decimal places calculate the volume of gas produce, and it is like a bag to collect the gas which nothing like the syringe. So this can solve the problem of the accurate and the compress of gas of the syringe. * I think using a machinery to shake up the reaction will be more accurate than a standard shake, which is better than a standard shake, and the machine will give out the same shake each time, which will make the experiment fair. I think I still can drew the same conclusion for this experiment because it is still reliable enough, this is because my result still can show a normal curve out the graph, which I have predict it before and the quantitative relationship does match up my data, so my conclusion still can be drew out. I can make other investigate on the other variables by investigate the mass of the marble chips can be vary the reaction rate, I can do the same method like this and probably find out the mass of marble chip increase by 2, the reaction will increase by 2, which is similar to the experiment to this. I may extend my experiment for using other acids such as sulphuric acid (H2SO4) or using nitric acid (HNO3). I may investigate will the rate of the reaction varies if the acids have more protons - H2SO4 which has 2 H+ ions and HNO3 which has1 H+ ion. Or I can investigate the difference between the strong of weak acids: ethanoic acid (CH3COOH), which is a weak acid and sulphuric acid, is a strong acid. I may change the material instead of carbonates: metals (e.g. zinc) or other kinds of carbonates. I can collect the results using another method such as measuring the change of mass during the experiment, by putting the flask on a mass balance. Chemistry Coursework Bernard Cheung - 1 - ...read more.

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