• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigate the effect of sodium carbonate on hard water.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

CHEMISTRY GCSE COURSEWORK: PLANNING AIM: To investigate the effect of sodium carbonate on hard water. METHOD: I am going to use titration in this experiment. To do this, I will use soap solution in a burette, I will use a pipette and a filler to get 25.0cm3 of hard water (the laboratory tap water). Then I will weigh out and add sodium carbonate (starting at a control of 0.000g and not going any higher than 6.000g) to the water and dissolve it. After doing this I will add soap solution (0.5cm3) to the solution, and shake it for 10 seconds. We will time this using a stopwatch/stop clock. We will then see if a permanent lather forms (a permanent lather is a lather that lasts for at least 10 seconds), which is also timed using a stopwatch/stop clock. I will continue to add soap solution until a lather forms. This will tell me if the sodium carbonate has made the water softer of harder. If a lather forms after only using 1cm3 - 3cm3, then it has been softened by the sodium carbonate, because all the calcium ions have been used up quickly; however if it takes over 6cm3 of soap solution to form a lather, then the sodium carbonate hasn't really softened the water and more sodium carbonate is needed. ...read more.

Middle

sodium carbonate to use up all the calcium ions and soften the water that no extra soap solution will actually be needed. I think that the graph is going to look like this because, at first when the sodium carbonate is added, there will be a large decrease in the volume of soap needed, however eventually, after a certain amount of sodium carbonate added, there will hardly be any soap solution needed. From then on, the volume of soap needed will be the same or there will only be a small decrease, so therefore the curve will start to slow down and instead of the volume of soap needed, decreasing rapidly, the volume of soap needed, will decrease but not so quickly. In the experiment, we are going to range the mass of sodium carbonate. However we are not going to use more than 6g of sodium chloride. I am going to use 8 different masses (0.0g, 0.5g, 1.0g, 2.0g, 3.0g, 4.0g, 5.0g, 6.0g).However, for each mass, 1 result is definitely not enough as that 1 result could be a rogue result. So I am going to get 3 results for each mass, so I can find out if one of the results was wrong. ...read more.

Conclusion

7 very hard Scottish Natural Mineral Water 5 hard Lab Tap Water + Calcium Hydrogen Carbonate 16 extremely hard Lab Tap Water + 0.5g of Sodium Carbonate 4 medium Lab Tap Water + 2.0g of Sodium Carbonate 2 very soft From these results, we can tell that the more calcium ions there are in the water the harder the water is and therefore more soap solution (which contains stearate) is needed to get rid of all the calcium ions. In the experiment we are about to do, we know that we need more soap solution to get rid of calcium ions, but we also have sodium carbonate (which contains carbonate ions) which also helps to use up calcium ions. As shown in the results, we can see that using sodium carbonate definitely softens the water. In the experiment that we are about to do, instead of only using two masses of sodium carbonate with water, we are going to use more masses (8 to be precise), so that we get more accurate and reliable results. So, we know from previous experiments that the more sodium carbonate added, the less stearate/soap solution need to soften the water, and the more sodium carbonate added, the softer the solution. WILLIAM KEISNER 4S 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Investigate the effect of sodium carbonate on hard water.

    In a previous experiment the amount of soap solution required to create the lather when no sodium carbonate was added was 7 cm3. The amount of soap solution required to create the lather when one gram of sodium carbonate was added however, was only five cm3.

  2. In this experiment, we aim to investigate the effect of sodium carbonate on hard ...

    So these are the results I would expect to obtain, in graph form: (N.B. The amount of sodium carbonate is on the x-axis because it was the quantity which we controlled, but the amount of soap solution needed was the quantity which we were investigating, and was therefore beyond our control.)

  1. Investigate the effect of sodium carbonate on water.

    Record the volume of soap you need to create this lather. 7. Repeat this experiment except each time, instead of putting just 1g of sodium carbonate in the water, put 2.000g, then 3.000g, then 4.000g etc. Do this until you get up to 6.000g of sodium carbonate then stop.

  2. Establish what types of soil holds the most water and to see if changing ...

    amount of soil to be used each time has been set at 15g so that their masses are all equal for fairer results. Doing the pre - test we also discovered that the time taken to do the experiment was just too long and it has been decided that the

  1. The aim of this experiment is to answer the following question: What is the ...

    my investigation will be to change the amount of sample I take. I will take 1cm3 instead of 5cm3. This is because I will take 3 samples of each reaction, and I think a smaller sample will produce a titre that is under 50cm3.

  2. Indirect determination of enthalpy change of decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate by thermochemical measurement ...

    by using: heat absorbed / moles. This represents ?H1 with reference to our reaction cycle: Molar ?H = heat absorbed by solution (J) = +992.75= +26125 J/mol-1 = Moles NaHCO3 0.038 = +26.13 kJ/ mol-1 Procedure for Experiment 2: with sodium carbonate Initially, I gathered all the necessary apparatus together and set up my calorimeter, as with the previous experiment.

  1. AS Chemistry - Investigate the effect of sodium carbonate on hard water

    I predict that the graph will start high showing that a lot of the soap solution would be required to create the unbroken lather on the surface for ten seconds. Then when one gram of sodium carbonate is added, the amount of soap solution required to create a lather will be much less.

  2. Analysing Soft Drink

    Micro-organism can only grow and multiply in neutral condition. The reaction between Sodium Hydroxide and Citric acid: The following equation shows the reaction of what's happening during the neutralisation reaction between Citric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide: Citric Acid + Sodium Hydroxide --> Sodium citrate + Water C6H8O7 + 3NaOH --> C6H8O7Na3+ 3H2O From the equation above we have worked

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work