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Investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction

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Introduction

Aim: To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction Background Information: Chemical reactions take place all the time at many different rates, some are incredibly fast like an explosion-where you get no time to see what's happening or like rusting which could take years before the iron is completely rusted. The rate of reaction is extremely important because you need to know how long before the end of the session or you may not get results in time. In living organisms it's vital that all the chemical reactions take place at the rates which supply the cells with the things they need exactly when they need them. Reaction rates are also important in the chemical industry as in any industrial process the ultimate purpose is to make money by producing useful products. In the chemical industry this means it's important to make as much of the desired product as cheaply as possible which means that the rate of reaction must be fast enough to make as much of the product as quickly as possible without risking overheating or explosions and without costing too much! How money hungry are we eh? Successful chemistry, whether microscopic or at a chemical plant, depends on controlling the rate of the ongoing reactions. In order to understand what affects the rate of chemical reactions and how we can control them we need to measure the rate of the reaction. The two ways to do this are measuring how quickly the reactants are used up or we can observe how quickly products are formed. Once we have a measurement for the reaction under one set of conditions, we can change them and make comparisons of the changing reaction rate under different conditions. There are 3 ways to measure the rate of reaction. We can measure a change in mass, if the reaction involves a gas being given off. ...read more.

Middle

Safety: * Goggles must be worn as the substance used in the experiment can be harmful to the eye * Movement around the lab should be quiet and orderly and kept to a minimum so that the experiment can be done with extreme accuracy and concentration * Hair must be tied back as a Bunsen burner is used and it is dangerous to have hair and loose * Be careful when handling the acid as it can cause burning * Be careful when dropping calcium carbonate into acid Equipment Use Gas syringe going up to 100 cm� with divisions of 1 cm� To measure the amount of gas given off Measuring cylinders going up to 50cm� with divisions of 1cm� To accurately measure acid amount Clamp stand To hold the gas syringe Safety mat To keep surfaces safe and hold up tripod Bunsen burner To heat up acid Tripod To hold up gauze that the Bunsen burner rests on Thermometer going up to 100�C in 1�C divisions To measure the temperature of the acid Conical Flask going up to 200cm� measuring to 50cm� To hold the acid and calcium carbonate when they are reacting Stopwatch timing to the nearest milliseconds To time the reaction Ice in large tub To cool down temperature Spatula To measure amount of calcium carbonate Hydrochloric acid of 1 molar concentration Used in experiment to react with calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate Used in experiment to react with hydrochloric acid Gauze To hold the Bunsen burner up Electronic scales measuring to the nearest milligram To measure the amount of calcium carbonate used in each experiment accurately Method: 1. Set up experiment by putting the gas syringe in the clamp stand safely. 2. Measure using measuring cylinder, 40 cm� of hydrochloric acid into conical flask. 3. Put down a safety mat and place a tripod and Bunsen burner on it. Put gauze on top of the tripod and Bunsen burner. 4. Place beaker on top of gauze and put thermometer in it. ...read more.

Conclusion

Looking up at my higher temperatures I have fewer readings as the reactions were quicker. The readings for 30�C give me a range of 15 and the readings for 35�C give me a range of 10. All of the ranges are under 20 with the exception of the 20�C results which gave me quite a large range and I shall be explaining why I may have got this result later. If I look at my graph I can see that almost all the points are close to, if not touching the curves of best fits. There are three points which are quite far from the curves and are circled on my graph since they are anomalous. The reliability of my experiment depended on whether my experiment was a fair test. I think that my method was very fair as it was followed carefully to ensure that a good experiment was conducted and a good conclusion would thus be made. To make my experiment more reliable I would need to use a wider range of temperatures. I would need to test more values and use smaller intervals between the values. I think that my experiment was very accurate. The time was to two significant figures and was measured to the nearest second. The volume of gas was between one and three significant figures and was measured to the nearest centimeter cubed. The temperature was to two significant figures and was to the nearest degree centigrade. The divisions on the thermometer were one degree apart whilst the divisions on the gas syringe were of 1 cm cubed. The measuring cylinders had divisions of 1 cm cubed and the conical flask had divisions of 50 cm cubed. The equipment used to measure was very accurate and was the same for the entire class. I could improve my experiment by using much more accurate equipment. I could use a pipette to ensure that my measurements for the acid were even more accurate. I could also use ?? ?? ?? ?? Chemistry Coursework Krishna Raghvani 11S ...read more.

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