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investigate the effects of temperature on the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Science Coursework: Rates of Reaction Skill section P Aim: To investigate the effects of temperature on the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Scientific Knowledge: Reaction: When atoms or groups of atoms re-arrange resulting in the change of molecular structure in substances, is only possible when the particles collide with the other reactants with enough energy to form the transition state and change it into other products. Without such circumstances reaction will not be possible. This is collision theory. The factors that affect the rate of reaction are: - Temperature - Pressure - Size of surface area in which reaction will take place - The concentration of reactants The reaction will take effect faster if any of these are increased. That is all because of collision theory. Reactants also need to have sufficient energy, activation energy, to react. If increasing temperature, the reactants will vibrate more making it more likely for them to collide and collide harder as they have more energy, meaning that they will have the activation energy to make reaction more likely. If pressure is high then there is more chance for the reactants to collide as they will be closer to each other. If surface area is increased then more reactants can collide with each other as there is more space for collision. ...read more.

Middle

Also, we had required no help to set up the equipment during the experiment. Safety Procedures: As I have explained in my plan, there were some important safety issues I had to take into account. When recording my results, I had to keep my paper as far away as possible from the solution, so incase the solution was tipped over, the results weren't lost. Also, to avoid the solution harming any part of my body, I made sure I was protected by wearing goggles, gloves and an apron. Fair test: During the experiment, we followed our plan carefully to ensure a fair test. We used a stopwatch so we could precisely calculate how long it took for the reactants to react. Also, there was more than 1 person responsible for confirming when the cross has disappeared; this is to ensure that there's always a back up incase someone gets distracted. Explaining the results: As you can see below, there is a table showing the results of my experiment. I did 6 separate tests and got 3 different times for each temperature. To find out the overall average time for each temperature, we added all 3 results for each temperature and then divide by 3. Then, you convert this to 3 significant figures to be as accurate as possible. ...read more.

Conclusion

Variables that we controlled in the plan: I have kept all the factors affecting the rate of reactions the same, except for temperature as it is the effect of temperature that I wanted to investigate. I kept the concentration of reactants the same by only using 40cm� of sodium thiosulphate and 10cm� of hydrochloric acid. I controlled surface area through using liquids as reactants. Lastly, I controlled the concentration by keeping the molar at 1. I think that I successfully managed to control the variables in this experiment. The variables were controlled so that my results of the experiment were fair and accurate, so that we can build a firmer conclusion on the rates of reaction. Conclusion: My prediction was correct. I predicted that the higher the temperature the faster the reaction, which also means, the lower the temperature the longer the reaction (they are indirectly proportional). If I were to do this experiment again I would use an ICT light sensor that can track the reaction much more accurately than human eyes. I would also use a room which has a constant temperature which is also the same temperature as the experiment, a 1�C room for a 1�C test so that the heat isn't affected by the room temperature. Lastly, I would use better measuring devices such as burettes to measure liquids in the experiment. ...read more.

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