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Investigate the electrical energy or voltage produced by the Daniel's and the lemon battery.

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Physics in the kitchen:




             To investigate the electrical energy or voltage produced by the Daniel’s and the lemon battery.

Background information:

The lemon battery is called a voltaic battery, which changes chemical energy into electrical energy

The battery is made up of two different metals. These are called electrodes, which are the parts of a battery where electric current enters or leaves the battery. The electrodes are placed in a liquid containing an electrolyte, which is a solution that can conduct electricity.  In a solution of water and an electrolyte, like the acid in the lemon, an excess of electrons collects on one end of the electrodes. At the same time, electrons are lost from the other electrode. Battery is an example of electrochemistry - using a chemical reaction to generate electricity. In most batteries there are two different types of metal that, because of their properties, are capable of producing an electric potential. The citric acid in the lemon acts like the sulphuric acid in a battery cell.

             Electricity is thought to be an animal origin and could be found only in living tissues. In 1791, Luigi Galvani discovered electrical activity in nerves of the frogs that he was dissecting.

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Clear away all the useless equipments from the working area.Collect all the equipments needed for the experiments that I will be doing,Firstly, I have to roll the lemon the table to break up some juice inside.Using a Stanley knife careful make holes in the lemon to insert the copper and zinc plates into it.Insert metal strips into the lemon as shown making sure that the strips do not touch each other.Using the voltmeter, measure the voltage produced between the two strips. Record the voltage or observation.Now add two other plates into the lemon.Measure the voltage produce between the two outer strips.Now connect the terminals of the battery to calculator to show the voltsThen record the observation or the voltage.


This is showing how the metal strips were inserted into the lemon.

The diagram shows the first two strips were inserted into the lemon and then the terminal at the end

           The second diagram shows the other two strips when they were added into the lemon.


             At first when there was only one pair of the metal strips inserted into the lemon, the voltmeter was reading 0.90volts.

Then I inserted the other two pair of the metal to double the voltage. The volt was 1.15volts.

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Using of electricity:

               Electricity is used for many important things in our lives. We use the energy of electricity in our homes, schools, business and hospitals. In order for electrons to move, a source of energy is needed. This energy may exist in various forms: mechanical motion, light, heat, or a chemical reaction. Chemical energy is the source of power in batteries.  Electricity has helped to bring the countries of the world closer by speeding up or improving in ways of communication. Telephones, faxes, televisions and other communications instruments use electricity as their source of energy.


             I was very surprised when I found out that a lemon could produce electricity. This also made me realise that any fruit can make electricity so long as it is acidic. The other thing I noticed is that you do have to use zinc and copper as your metals. Other types of metal can be used to replace them. A lemon can produce more current than the Daniel’s cell. Although the current did not get double as it was expected, it did get increased than it was in the first place.

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