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Investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction between limestone

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Introduction

Emma Phipps Chemistry Coursework PLANNING SECTION Aim: To investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction between limestone and hydrochloric acid. Introduction: In this investigation I am trying to find out what influences the reaction rate between limestone and hydrochloric acid. The reaction is: The factors that can be investigated are the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, the temperature, and making the surface area of the limestone bigger. Limestone is formed from fossil remains of shells and is a sedimentary rock, which contains almost 100% calcium carbonate (CaCO ). When it is heated it decomposes and produces quicklime (CaO) and carbon dioxide. It is an ingredient used in cement and glass and has appropriate physical properties to be used as an aggregate. This is used where a solid foundation is needed such as under concrete floors, roads and railway tracks. Limestone can also be used to produce a cheap alkali that neutralises acids in lakes and soil. For my preliminary experiment I used 3g of 3mm limestone chips, 50ml of hydrochloric acid and 500cm3 of distilled water. ...read more.

Middle

then add the acid * Quickly place the bung in the flask and start the stopwatch * Time the experiment until all the water has gone from the tube * Repeat this 3 times for each molarity Surface area experiment * Keep the apparatus set up the same as in the other experiment * Use the same quantities as before however, keep the molarity of the acid at 2 moles per litre, and change the size of the limestone chips * Complete the experiment exactly as before, repeating each size of limestone chips 3 times Fair testing: We kept the amount of acid the same and the amount of distilled water used the same in both experiments. In the concentration experiment we kept the surface area of the limestone chips the same, and in the surface area experiment we kept the molarity of the acid the same. The dependent variable in the concentration experiment were the different strengths of acid, whilst the independent variable was the temperature of the acid - this was dependent on the temperature of the room. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore the reaction will be slower and fewer inaccuracies can take place. The reason that the surface area graph increases is because as the size of the chips gets bigger, there is a larger surface area for the acid to erode. The graphs both agree with my prediction for surface area as I said that the rate would decrease and this happened. The concentration of acid graph decreases because as the concentration increases, the reaction between the acid and the limestone increases. The graphs both agree with my prediction for the concentration of acid because I said that the rate would increase and this has happened. EVAULATING SECTION Evaluation: To improve the accuracy and reliability of this experiment I could do more repeats of the experiment and also include different variables. One of these could be the temperature of the acid. I could heat the acid to different temperatures and see if this would affect the rate of reaction. I think that my results were very accurately recorded because the number of factors of fair testing that we took into consideration ensured that it would be precise. Therefore I didn't have any anomalous results. ...read more.

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