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Investigate the factors that affects the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Investigation of the Factors that Affect the Rate at which a Reaction Takes Place Aim To investigate the factors that affects the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Background Knowledge When different substances are placed together and produce a new substance or new substances, the process is called a reaction. A reaction can be summarised by the following diagram: REACTANTS PRODUCTS (the initial (the final substance(s) substances) that are produced) When particles react they are, in fact, colliding with enough (kinetic) energy to produce a new substance or new substances. This is known as the collision theory. Often an initial boost of energy (called activation energy) is required to break old bonds, so that new bonds can be made. Some reactions are naturally quick. This is because more successful collisions take place in a short period of time. An example of this is when magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid - in this reaction the rate of reaction is high. However other reactions are slow. This may be because the collisions are very few or because there are very few successful collisions (i.e. the particles do not have enough energy to react). An example of this is rusting - the rate of reaction is low. The rate at which a reaction takes place can be altered by changing various factors: 1. Temperature. A higher temperature gives the particles more energy. This causes the particles to move around quicker and because they move quicker they are more likely to collide. 2. Surface area. When there is a larger surface area (or smaller particle size), there shall be more surfaces exposed. Therefore more particles can react simultaneously. This is explained by the following diagram: 3. Concentration. If there is a bigger concentration, the particles shall be closer, so there is a better chance of them colliding. 4. Catalyst. These are usually transition metals that lessen the amount of energy needed to have a successful collision. ...read more.

Middle

make the reading on the weighing scale 0). Then measure 1 gram of marble chips on the measuring scale. 7. Holding the weighing boat (containing 1 gram of marble chips) at an angle, place its contents into the conical flask. Immediately, put the bung on tightly and begin timing. 8. Stop the timer when the measuring cylinder empties to 10cm�. Now record the result in the results table. 9. Remove all the remaining substances in the conical flask and rinse out the measuring cylinders. 10. Repeat all 9 steps again 2 more times. 11. Do the same for: * 15cm� of hydrochloric acid and 35cm� of water * 20cm� of hydrochloric acid and 30cm� of water * 25cm� of hydrochloric acid and 25cm� of water * 30cm� of hydrochloric acid and 20cm� of water * 35cm� of hydrochloric acid and 15cm� of water * 40cm� of hydrochloric acid and 10cm� of water by changing the amounts mentioned in steps 1 and 3. Fair test To ensure that the test is fair (so that the results are accurate and not changed), all factors which affect the rate of reaction must remain the same throughout all experiments except for the variable which is the concentration of hydrochloric acid. To do this, the following should be implemented: * To keep the temperature the same, do all experiments at room temperature which is currently 22�c. * To keep the surface area the same, ensure that all marble chips used are almost identical (in size and shape). * To assure that no catalyst is added, do not add any other substance in the conical flask, other than the required amount of hydrochloric acid, water and marble chips. Another factor which must be considered to assure that the practical is fair is consistency. The people (the experiments shall be done in pairs) specified to a particular job or particular jobs (e.g. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another thing which could be done to get more accurate readings is to repeat the experiment several more times so a decisive average could be obtained. Also to get more accurate results, rather than altering the concentration by diluting it, varying molar solutions could be used e.g. 0.5M, 1M, 1,5M, 2M etc. This will give more accurate readings because the concentrations are decisive and a lot less doubtful than diluting the hydrochloric acid. In attempting to further this investigation, many areas could be explored. The other factors which affect the rate of reaction (other than concentration) between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid namely the temperature of the hydrochloric acid and the size of the calcium carbonate pieces (surface area) could be further investigated by varying their amount to see to what extent they affect the rate of this particular reaction. To experiment on how temperature affects the rate of reaction all factors should remain the same except the temperature of either the room or the substance (i.e. the hydrochloric acid) by heating it and the difference in the rate at which the reactants react should be observed. Likewise, when testing the surface area the size of calcium carbonate should be changed and how the rate changes should be observed. In addition to this the current factor (concentration) could be further experiment with to get better and more accurate evidences. The range I used was 10-40cm� of hydrochloric acid in a solution with the total volume of 50cm�. The missing quantities (i.e. 0cm�, 5cm�, 45cm� and 50cm�) could also be experimented with. Also I did the experiments in intervals of 5 and added a curve of best fit. However I cannot be certain that the readings in an actual practical would be exactly along the curve so rather than doing intervals of 5, intervals of 2 or 3 would give more accurate and precise results. As regards to my final results and findings, I am pleased by its accuracy and recommend this procedural method of executing further experiments of a similar nature. 1 Science Coursework ...read more.

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