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Investigate the factors that effect the current flowing during the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride.

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Introduction

CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATION PLANNING AIM The aim of this experiment is to investigate the factors that effect the current flowing during the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. In this experiment, I will keep the voltage, the volume of water, the mass of salt, temperature, and the distant between electrodes constant, while varying length of electrode in the water. VARIABLES In this experiment, I will only use one variable, although there are others to consider to ensure a fair test. As, if more than one factor is varied during the experiment, the results will not be reliable. These variables are: * The length of the electrode in the water * Temperature * Mass of sodium chloride * Volume of water * Distance between electrodes * Voltage During this experiment, I have chosen to vary the mass of sodium chloride in the solution. I will keep all the other factors constant. I will achieve this by using : * A ruler to measure the length of electrode that is in the water. * A thermometer to check the temperature. * A beaker with clear and accurate measurements on it to keep the volume of water constant. ...read more.

Middle

5 0.48 0.46 0.43 0.46 10 0.63 0.58 0.61 0.61 15 0.90 0.94 0.79 0.85 20 0.97 0.83 0.93 0.91 25 1.21 1.21 1.20 1.21 ANALYSIS * describe the features of your processed results the graphs, for example - is your graph a straight line, or a curve? - are there any striking patterns in your results? * describe how the trends or patterns that you can see support (or not) the ideas and predictions you set out in your plan * account for any results that you got which don't fit the pattern or which seem to be "wrong" This part of the account of your investigation should tie together the ideas in the parts that have come before. You'll need to think carefully about what you set out to do, how you did it and the results you got. How do these all fit together? Your report on the investigation should lead the reader through all these things, and your conclusions should leave them in no doubt what YOU think your results mean. Evaluating If the previous sections of your report on your investigation have been leading up to "who did it", the evaluation can be likened to someone asking the question "how sure are you that you're right?"! ...read more.

Conclusion

However, the products from the salt solution will be different to the molten solution because of the presence of the water, which itself produces ions. During electrolysis, these ions compete with the metal and non-metal ions from the dissolved salts, to receive or give up electrons. So who wins? At the cathode: The more reactive a metal is the more it prefers being ions. Therefore, if a reactive metal such as zinc or magnesium is present it will remain as the ions. The H+ ions will accept the electrons and hydrogen gas will be given off at the cathode. If a less reactive metal, such as copper or silver is present it would rather accept the electrons than H+. Hence, the metal forms at the cathode. At the anode: If halide ions are present, Cl-, Br-, I-, they will give up there electrons to become molecules of Cl2, Br2 and I2 respectively. If no halogen is present, OH- will give up electrons more readily than other non-metal ions, and oxygen forms. If we take the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid, in order for them to react together: 1. They must collide with each other 2. The collision must be with sufficient energy. ANALYSIS ...read more.

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