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Investigate the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid at different concentrations.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework - Reaction Rates Aim: To Investigate the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid at different concentrations. Background Knowledge: I know from my knowledge of science, that by adding together a carbonate and an acid, that a salt, water and Carbon Dioxide are produced. Therefore in order to measure the rate of reaction, one of these products needs to be measured, and the rate at which it is produced can be used to define the rate of the reaction. The methods that can be used are either to measure the mass of the solution at intervals. Or to measure the produce of gas (Carbon Dioxide). Prediction: Using the known formula: ACID + CARBONATE --> SALT + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER I can predict the reaction of my experiment to be: HYDROCHLORIC + CALCIUM --> CALCIUM + WATER + CARBON ACID CARBONATE CHLORIDE DIOXIDE The Chemical Formula is listed below: 2HCl + CaCO3 --> CaCl2 + H20 + CO2 I think that as the molarity of the acid goes up, the amount of gas produced will also go up. ...read more.

Middle

50cc This volume remains within the safe limit, whilst still allowing a good range of results to be produced Mass of Calcium Carbonate (Controlled) 20g This is a safe mass of the solid, yet will still be enough to react with the acid and produce good results Temperature (Controlled) 20?C This controlled temperature has been proved in preliminary work to work well with the other variables and produce results Equipment List: (although simulated apparatus is being used, should the experiment be physically conducted, the following would be needed) 200ml Flask with air tight cork Gas syringe Measuring cylinder Gas flow tube (from flask to syringe) Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Carbonate (medium pieces) Thermometer Water Bath Stopwatch Plan: The below apparatus will be simulated for use in the experiment: Plan (continued): 50 cc of hydrochloric acid with a molarity of 0.2M will be placed into the flask. Ensuring that its temperature is 20?C (using a water bath) the 20g calcium carbonate in medium pieces will be added, the cork tightened to prevent any gas loss, and the stopwatch started. ...read more.

Conclusion

The results can be classified as reliable as they were obtained and then repeated. The computer performed the experiment, to a level of human error, and this was unalterable by the experimenter. Conclusion: The results unanimously show a clear trend that as the molarity of the acid increases, the volume of carbon dioxide will also do the same. There is an even trend going up, with a straight line to fit as the line of best fit. The reason for this pattern is the same as that that was made in the prediction. As the concentration of the acid increases, there are more HCl molecules and so there is more chance of the calcium carbonate molecules colliding with these and so reacting to form calcium chloride. With the reaction occurring more often, the products will form in a greater quantity and so more carbon dioxide is produced. This reflects the rate of the reaction on the graph and proves my prediction and its theory correct. Evaluation: As the experiment was computer generated, it simulated how the experiment would have been conducted. It accounted for human errors in all aspects of the expriment. Karim Ismail 11S 28/04/2007 Chemistry GCSE Coursework ...read more.

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