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Investigate the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Investigating on the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Aim: I'm going to investigate the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid >> carbon dioxide + calcium chloride + water Prediction: I predict that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the faster the carbon dioxide will be given off, therefore the greater the rate of reaction. I think this because the higher the concentration of the acid molecules the more particles available to react, also the higher the concentration of acid particles the more chance of a particle having enough activation energy. From the key science book it states that, the speed of the reaction is found to be proportional to the concentration of the acid, if the acid concentration is doubled, the speed of reaction doubles. The reason for this is that the ions are closer together in a concentrated solution, the closer together they are, the more often the ions collide, the more often they collide, the more chance they have of reacting. ...read more.

Middle

Concentration - Concentration effects the rate of a reaction because the higher the concentration of particles the greater the chance of a successful collision. The general trend for the concentration is the rate doubles as the concentration doubles (they're directly proportionate). Diagram: Safety: You will be using concentrated acid, so at all times you must be very careful and you MUST wear goggles. If any spills onto your hands it should be washed off immediately and reported to the teacher. Variables: What I will keep the same - Each time I repeat the experiment I will keep the temperature, These are the other factors, which may affect the rate of reaction. What I will change - The only thing that I will change each time is the morality of the acid. 1M, 0.8M, 0.6M, 0.4M, 0.2M Method: I am going to set up the equipment like I have drawn out in the diagram above, I will then carry out a trial run to see if I need to alter anything from the experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

Over all my results were roughly correct, most of the 60-second experiment had a higher rate of reaction The graph also supports my prediction. On the graph the further the curve, the faster the rate of reaction. Evaluation: Overall I am pleased with my results and the way the experiment was carried out. I think my results were fairly accurate and proved my hypothesis. To make the overall experiment results more accurate we repeated it three times and then took the average. If I were to do the experiment again, I would do everything more accurately, my have then exact amount of calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid, and see if this changed my result by much. I would also try and find another way of getting the stopper on the glass flask as it took a lot of time and might have affected my results. I had only one anomalous result and that was the one on the 1M for the 60-second one, it didn't fit the graph along with the other results, and this could be due to human error. ...read more.

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