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# Investigate the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate.

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Introduction

Aim I plan to investigate the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. I will test how the acid concentration will affect the rate of reaction. Hypothesis I predict that the higher the concentration of acid then the faster the rate of reaction. Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid => Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water CaCO3 + 2HCl => CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O Apparatus set up as below Conical flask Gas cyringe HCL Calcium carbonate Stop watch Measuring cylinder Collision Theory Particles have to collide to react. They also have to collide hard enough (more than the activation energy). Therefore the rate of reaction simply depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. As I am experimenting how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction, I am going to explain how this is so. Doubling the concentration Increase in HCl (more particles of HCl in the same volume) * If the solution is made more concentrated, it means there are more particles colliding with the marble chips per second * This makes collisions between the important particles more likely * If they are more likely to collide, then they are more likely to react Hence an increase in concentration causes an increase in reaction rate. If I double the concentration, I expect the reaction rate to double also. ...read more.

Middle

* Therefore at the same temperature, more reactant molecules have enough kinetic energy to react compared to a solution which has not had a catalyst added. * o It is chemically the same at the end of the reaction but it may change a little physically if it's a solid. * A solid catalyst might change physically by becoming more finely divided, especially if the reaction is exothermic. Fair Test To make my experiment fair I will: � Keep the volume of acid the same (100cm3) � Keep the same mass of marble chips and also the keep them the same shape (20g) � Make sure the same person is marking the cylinder (I will be doing the marking) � Make sure the same person is taking the recordings from the gas cylinder (I am doing this also) � Make sure the same person is doing the timing on the stop watch (me again) � Use water from the same supply source to dilute acid (Distilled water container) � Use water at the same temperature (room temperature) � Keep the type of acid the same (HCl) � Keep the temperature at which the experiment takes place the same (room temperature) � Not disurb the mixture at any time during the experiment Number of Measurements I will investigate with 4 different concentrations because this way I will have a larger collection of results to prove a firm conclusion and to hopefully back my prediction. ...read more.

Conclusion

How to make more accurate There are a number of reasons why this will improve the experiment: * some of the Co2 gas is dissolved in the water * The markings on the syringe are not very accurate * The plunger in the syringe does not move back steadily at low conc.s due to friction so slows down times. How to make more fair To make the experiment fairer, I am going to set the conical flask containing the marble chips and acid on top of an electronic heater. This is because there may be a change in temperature of the acid in between each test. I am going to set the heater at 30oC as this is when the acid is at its optimum temperature. How to make more reliable To make my results more reliable I could do 5 tests on each acid concentration. By doing this I will increase the accuracy for the average of each concentration. There is another way of making my results more reliable. I could extend the range of concentrations. Using a concentration below 0.5M would not react effectively enough to improve my experiment so I would be better using concentrations of more than 2.0M. However this would mean that the acids would be corrosive and I would have to work with a facemask and safety gloves under safer conditions in a fume cupboard so i could try using a wider range in the 0.5-2.0mol limit. Investigating the effect that concentration has on the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. Avninder Gidar ...read more.

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