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Investigate the Rate of Reaction between Sodium thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

INVESTIGATE THE RATE OF REACTION BETWEEN SODIUM THIOSULPHATE AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID. THEORY: Sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, react together to produce sulphur as one of the products Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric acid --> 2NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + S (s) + SO2 (g) Sodium Chloride + Water + Sulphur + Sulphur Dioxide Sulphur is a yellow precipitate, so the solution will turn an opaque yellow colour while the reaction is occurring. The reaction will continue and eventually the solution will turn completely opaque. AIM: - the aim of this experiment is to show the effect on the rate of reaction, when the concentration of one of the reagents changes. Variables Dependant Variable: - Variable that is measured. This will be the time, from when the HCl is added to the Na2S2O3, until the solution goes yellow and opaque, when a cross, which is written on a label placed underneath the reaction, can not be see. Independent Variable: - Variable that is changed. This will be the concentration of Na2S2O3. Controlled variable: - There are four variables that may affect the experiment and the results. These are concentration and volume of HCl, the same person with the stopwatch, the same apparatus, temperature these could all affect the results. I. Concentration and volume of HCl : - If the concentration is increased then the number of particles in the solution increases. ...read more.

Middle

(c) Take a one sided sticky label, and with a thick marker draw a cross on the sticky side, then stick this label on the bottom of the conical flask. (d) Measure 5cm3 of sodium thiosulphate in the 10cm3 measuring cylinder. (e) Take the same measuring cylinder and fill up to the 30cm3 mark with water. Then pour all of the contents into conical flask. (f) Take 10cm3 measuring cylinder and measure 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid. (g) Pour this into the conical flask and immediately start the stopwatch. (h) When the cross is not visible when looking from above the conical flask, then stop the timer and record the time on the table. (i) Wash out the apparatus as not to cause any contamination for the next time, so that there are chemicals left, which could affect results. (j) Repeat steps (a) - (f), but using 25cm3 of sodium thiosulphate, then repeat steps (a) - (f) again, but using 30 cm3 of sodium thiosulphate, these large amounts can be measures out in a 50 cm3 measuring cylinder. (k) Repeat steps (a) - (g) using 5cm3 instead of 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid. Then repeat steps (a) - (g) again using 15cm3 instead of 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid. (l) Repeat steps (a) - (g), but change the concentration of hydrochloric acid, and keep the concentration of sodium thiosulphate constant. Results Experiment Volume of Hydrochloric Acid (cm3) Volume of Sodium Thiosulphate (cm3) Volume of Water (cm3) Concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate (M) ...read more.

Conclusion

How to control variables that could affect my results. I will make the test fair, by controlling the person using the stopwatch, which will be me; therefore my reaction time will stay the same and therefore reducing errors. I will clean out the apparatus each time, so that the apparatus is not contaminated, also I will use the same apparatus. Temperature is very hard to control, I can not make sure that it is exact, but the experiment will happen under room temperature, which will be about 22 oC, and I will keep my experiment away from anything, which could potentially heat up the experiment, e.g. Bunsen flames and radiators. The concentration of HCl will be the same, as we will not be making the concentration, but be provided with it. The volume of hydrochloric acid, we can measure to the closest 0.5 cm3, there will be a little amount of error, but not much. This is how I will record my results. Experiment Volume of Hydrochloric Acid Volume of Sodium Thiosulphate Volume of Water Concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate Time Rate (cm3) (cm3) (cm3) (M) (s) (s-1) 1 10 5 25 0.0833 - - 2 10 10 20 0.167 - - In addition, I will create a scatter graph for time against concentration of sodium thiosulphate, and draw a best of best fit. I will also draw a scatter graph of rate of reaction against sodium thiosulphate, with a line of best fit. Varun Garg 5D: Chemistry Coursework: Plan Page 1 of 8 ...read more.

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