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Investigate the rates of reaction, which affect by the change of concentration of the acid.

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Introduction

HOW THE CONCERNTRATION OF THE HYDROCHLORIC ACID AFFECT THE RATE THE OF REACTION BETWEEN MAGNESIUM AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID PLANNING: AIM: I am going to investigate the rates of reaction, which affect by the change of concentration of the acid. In this experiment, I am going to look at the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium. They react as the equation below: Hydrochloric Acid +Magnesium---- Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen 2HCL + Mg-------- MgCL2 + H2 The product of the reaction in this experiment is Magnesium Chloride and hydrogen. To measure the rate of the reaction, I am going to measure the volume of the hydrogen in order to measure the rate of the reaction. FAIR TEST: According to the collision theory, a reaction will only occur where the particles of the reactants meets and combine. This means that the change of the rate of reaction is causes by the amount of particles to collide more often or less often. For instance, the increasing in the reaction must cause more particles to collide harder and make it happen more often. As the result, there are many ways, which can affect the rate of reaction: * Concentration: increase the concentration will increase the rate of reaction. As we increase the concentration, there are more particles in a given volume of solution. Therefore there are more collisions in a given time. ...read more.

Middle

This will increase the rate of reaction, so more hydrogen can be collect. 2. The rate of reaction will decrease as the experiment longer the experiment progresses. This is because as the Hydrochloric Acid react with the Magnesium, the number of Hydrochloric Acid will decrease to form water Magnesium Chloride and hydrogen. This will decrease the rate of reaction because of decrease of concentration. As the result, the graph shows the relationship between the increasing of Hydrogen and the time will be a curve, which the reaction rate slows down as the time increases. 3. The increase in concentration should be directly proportional to the increase of reaction rate at a given time. For instance, the volume of the hydrogen will double when the concentration of the acid double. This is because as far as I double the concentration of the acid, there is double number of Hydrochloric acid particle in a given volume, so the chance of the collision of the acid particle with the magnesium will double. APPARATUS: 2 boiling tubes: use to collect the hydrogen gas 1 Clamp: use to hold the boiling tube 1 Delivery tube: use to connect the boiling tube and the conical flask to deliver the hydrogen gas 1 *250cm conical flask: use to hold the reactants 1 Stopwatch: use to measure the time it takes to fill the boiling tube 1 Measure cylinder: use to measure the volume of HCL 1 container: use to put the boiling which filled with water upside down Hydrochloric acid Magnesium METHOD: 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

The measurements of the volume of the water and HCL were accurate to about, and the measurements of the time were accurate to about millisecond. The difficulty in this experiment is that, when turning the cylinder upside down little volume of water was lost, this caused the time we get is smaller than it suppose to be. To solve this problem we, could use a gas syringe. The experiments were fair tests to a certain point, but there was a certain error because the results recorded were only to the nearest cm3. And the values of the controlled variables-the mass of the Mg and the volume of the HCL were not exact amounts so this may have been slightly differently each time which would have affected slightly the reliability of the results. We also can not keep the room temperature and the boiling tube is dry each time, this affect the reliable of the results. To improve the experiments and the make the results more reliable, I would try my best to keep all the confounding variable the same. I would also use top quality equipment. I would also repeat the experiment by using the same concentration more times to get more reliable reading. If I am going to do a further investigation, I will find out whether the concentration keeps increasing the rate of reaction of this only happens to a certain extent. This could be found out by extending the range of concentrations reacted. However, theses reactions can be very dangerous as the concentration of the acid is too high. 1 ...read more.

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