• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigate the time taken for a pendulum to oscillate through one time period.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Nelesh Patel 11SB                                          Physics Coursework

Pendulum Investigation

Aim

To investigate the time taken for a pendulum to oscillate through one time period.

Introduction

We are carrying out this investigation to look at the energy transfer involved in the swinging of a pendulum. A Pendulum moves in a harmonic motion, we can tell as firstly the pendulum moves in a straight line, also if there are variable forces acting on the pendulum and if the force of the pendulum is proportional to the displacement of the mass.

We are also doing this investigation to find out the time taken for a pendulum to oscillate through one time period.image00.png

A time period is a full oscillation of the pendulum as shown in the diagram on the left, where the pendulum starts at point 1 and swings to point 3 and return back to point 1, this is a full oscillation because it is the movement from one height to another and back again. The purpose of this is so we can look at the factors that affect the time period and then use that factor as a variable in the experiment.

Apparatus

We need the following apparatus for this investigation as shown in the diagram

  • Clamp Stand -  To raise the pendulum off the floor and allow a longer string to be used.
  • Clamp – To Hold Boss
  • Boss – To hold 2 small pieces of wood
  • 2 square pieces of wood -  To hold the string that hold the pendulum
  • Pendulum -  To investigate the time period of one full oscillation with a certain string length.
  • Stop Watch – To calculate Time Period for 1 oscillation
  • Protractor – To measure displacement
  • Ruler – To measure length of string
...read more.

Middle

0.4

1.27

0.5

1.42

0.6

1.55

0.7

1.68

0.8

1.79

0.9

1.90

1.0

2.01

The graph is not good enough to be used because our hypothesis states that the time period should be proportional to the length so is we wanted to calculate the time period easily we would just need the length of the string.

I will now try to make a graph with t² against length

L/m

T/s

T²/s²

0.1

0.63

0.40

0.2

0.90

0.80

0.3

1.10

1.21

0.4

1.27

1.61

0.5

1.42

2.01

0.6

1.55

2.41

0.7

1.68

2.81

0.8

1.79

3.22

0.9

1.90

3.62

1.0

2.01

4.02

image02.png

The is what I predict my experiment results will look and when I compare the 2 graphs I should get a very close match. If not then my Hypothesis in wrong.

Fair Test

To keep this a fair test, we must ensure that the string length is accurate, the angle of displacement is same through out and to make sure that reaction time make as minimal effect as possible by measuring the time for 10 oscillations instead of 1.

Safety

There should be no safety precautions as there is nothing heavy or explosive or in anyway harmful being used.

Method

Firstly the apparatus shown in the diagram is set up.

...read more.

Conclusion

T = 2∏√(l/g) is accurate and works and can be used to work out the time period for any string length of a pendulum swinging in a harmonic motion

image05.png

This graph shows that the relationship between t² and the length of the string is proportionate, this means that the time period is determined on the string length of the pendulum. It shows us that t is not directly proportionate to length as also shown in the prediction graph.

The gradient is 1.1s²/30cm which is 0.34s²/cm. The reason for this connection is because the formula is not dependent on the 2∏ and g because we have shown that

t is proportional √L and so t² is proportional to L.

This proves my hypothesis is correct and that t² and L have a direct correlation and that string length will increase time period and the larger the length is the larger the arc of displacement.

Evaluation

Apart from the 3-4% error margin and the difficulty of obtaining an exact string length to the nearest centimetre, we had very accurate results.

Because of this our results where very uneven but they were not that bad and were still useful.

I think that the data shown in the results and analysis show that my hypothesis was correct.

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The purpose of this experiment is to see what factors affect the period of ...

    4 star(s)

    The period is also the same if the amplitude is reduced. For the mass as it is increased this affects both the gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy as they both contain mass in their formulas but velocity is not affected.

  2. Period of Oscillation of a Simple Pendulum

    I believe that there is a certain angle at which the oscillation will slow down, which is probably 40�. After this point on the graph, the time slow down whereas before this they remain more-or-less constant. Conclusion I can safely say that my hypothesis regarding mass was proven to be correct.

  1. To investigate the time taken for the pendulum to oscillate for a time period.

    But in reality, at Earth anyway this is not possible. This is because air molecules get in the way of the pendulum, and when the particles of each collide the pendulum loses energy to the air molecules. This is called air resistance and causes the pendulum to slow down with every swing.

  2. Find which factors/variables affect a pendulums period (time taken to do one oscillation) and ...

    Each mass will be done for each length and visa versa. Record the results in a table. Obtaining Evidence I obtained the following results from the experiment which I repeated once and then I took an average of the two results.

  1. In this experiment I aim to find out how the force and mass affect ...

    would have to be re-adjusted to make sure it was perpendicular with the picket fence on the trolley. There are limitations to the accuracy and results of my experiment because of certain factors to do with the apparatus and also fundamental factors that were uncontrollable.

  2. The determination of the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the earth, ...

    Count down 3, 2, 1, 0 to familiarise yourself with the rhythm of the oscillations. On the count of 0 start the stop watch. You should count when the bob completes an oscillation. 11. Count 30 oscillations. Stop the stop watch as soon as the pendulum completes the 30th oscillation.

  1. What affects the time period of a pendulum.

    3,2,1, go. We should also let the pendulum swing for ten periods and then divide by 10 to reduce the effect of human error. Note: Although during my research I ascertained that the mass of the bob does not effect the period of the pendulum, I should still keep this constant, as I should only have one variable in my experiment.

  2. Physics Coursework: To investigate the Oscillations of a mass on a spring

    So basically, I am saying that the amplitude will affect the time of oscillations in a given time. As the amplitude goes up, the time will decrease. I think the mass will speed up more if it is let go at higher amplitude.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work