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Investigate the Time Taken for a Reaction to Take Place Between Antacid Tablets and Hydrochloric Acid with a Varying Concentration.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework to Investigate the Time Taken for a Reaction to Take Place Between Antacid Tablets and Hydrochloric Acid with a Varying Concentration. Background Chemistry The experiment consists of an antacid tablet reacting with hydrochloric acid. The chemical symbol for Hydrochloric acid is HCl. This means that it consists of hydrogen and chlorine. The part which reacts in the experiment is hydrogen. The antacid tablet consists of calcium carbonate, sucrose, maize starch, calcium searate, peppermint oil and saccharin sodium. The part which reacts in the antacid tablet is the calcium carbonate. The reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid is as follows: Ca CO3 + 2HCl CO2 + H2O + CaCl2 Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid Carbon dioxide + Water + Calcium Chloride The gas which I am collecting in a measuring cylinder will be carbon dioxide. The reaction will look like this: The hydrogen ions and the calcium carbonate ions must have a successful collision for a reaction to take place. Not all collisions will be successful. During my preliminary experiments I discovered that five concentrations would be the ideal amount to study. Less than five concentrations would give a less accurate graph and there would not be a sufficient amount of results to study or make a prediction. I found that more than five concentrations was unnecessary and although would have made the graph more accurate, it would have taken too much time and too many tablets. ...read more.

Middle

Instead of timing the reaction until the tablet has dissolved I will time it until it has produced 50cm� of gas. I will then repeat the experiment three times for each concentration and average out the results making sure to take away the extra ten seconds off the recorded stopwatch time. To conduct this experiment safely I will have to wear goggles, gloves and a lab coat. I will wear gloves and goggles to protect my eyes and skin because the acid I will be using will be 4 molar hydrochloric acid, which is very caustic. If it were to come into contact with my eyes then it would burn through my retina making me blind, similarly if it were to come in contact with my skin then it could cause serious damage. The results from this experiment will have to be fair. To make them as fair as possible I will have to do several things:- * I will have to use a thermometer to check the temperature of the acid. The temperature could change my results dramatically. The hotter the acid, the faster the reaction. Heat changes the rate of collision because it makes the atoms vibrate more and gives them more energy, increasing the chance of a successful collision. From my preliminary results I found out that the average temperature of the acid was 19�, so I will try to keep the temperature of the acid as near to 19� as possible to make it a fair test. ...read more.

Conclusion

The graph looked like this: 4 2 Concentration (Molar) Rate I conclude that when you increase the concentration the time taken decreases. When you increase the concentration the rate of reaction increases and the two are directly proportional to one another. I have drawn this conclusion from my evidence and my scientific knowledge of the collision theory. The processed evidence shows that as the concentration increase the time taken decreases. This is consistent with the collision theory. The collision theory states that a reaction can only take place if particles collide with each other. The more particles there are to collide, the more chance of a successful collision. My results support my prediction. I predicted that when the concentration of hydrochloric acid is increased, the rate that the reaction takes place will increase. I predicted that if the concentration of hydrochloric acid is doubled then the rate of reaction will also double and the concentration and the rate will be proportional to one another. The graphs support this because as 2 molar is doubled to 4 molar the rate of reaction doubles from 0.014 to 0.028. I then tried 1 molar doubled to 2 molar and the rate doubled again from 0.010 to 0.020. My results also show that when you increase the concentration the time taken decreases. I drew across from 4 molar and then down to time taken and the time was 152 seconds, I then drew across from 1 molar and the time taken was 37 seconds. This proves my prediction. ...read more.

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