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Investigate what factors affect the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Chemical reactions can only happen when the reactant particles collide, but most collisions are not successful in forming product molecules. The reactant molecules must collide with enough energy to break the original bonds so those new bonds in the product molecules can be formed. The rate at which the products are formed at is called the rate of reaction. I have leant that if, the factors that affect the rate of reaction, (temperature, surface area, pressure, using a catalyst or concentration). Aim: My aim is to investigate what factors affect the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. The factor that I will be focusing on is the concentration. Reaction Equation: Mg(s) +2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) +H2(g) Introduction: There are varieties of different variables you can use, like, the temperature, the concentration; the surface area and weather to use a catalyst or not these all affect the rate of reaction. * The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction is that, if the temperature is increased then the particles will move faster. This leads to more collisions. In addition, particles have more kinetic energy, so more collisions will lead to a reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Because I am using hydrochloric acid, I have to be careful not to spill it anywhere or on anyone because it can be irritant. If the chemical does spill then I must wash it off with warm water. I will be using safety goggles to ensure that no chemicals go into my eyes. In addition, I need to make sure that all the chemicals are put away when I have finished using them and the glassware should be carefully handled, to prevent any accidents. I am going to test out my range of most reasonable boundaries for my 'fixed volume'. Below is a table showing the reactions taking place in my 'fixed volume' with the time it took. Water Hydrochloric acid Time 0 mls 30 mls 57secs 37 5 mls 25 mls 1 min 02 10 mls 20 mls 2 mins 32 15 mls 15 mls 3 mins 12 20 mls 10 mls 14 mins 39 25 mls 5 mls 25 mins 17 (Table showing results of the preliminary work, carried out). I chose to use the boundaries of my 'fixed volume' because they give me an overall good wide range of results. ...read more.

Conclusion

* The water may have increased or decreased by more than it should have been. * The overall set volume may have risen at this point to more or less than 30cm . * The magnesium for that go may not have been cut to exactly 1cm . Apart from that one anomaly, I think that the way I approached getting my overall results was a good method. There were no patterns in the graphs or in my results apart from the main obvious one being, the higher the concentration the faster the rate of reaction. If I were set more time to do the experiment I would do three repeats instead of two sets results could be perfect. I would use a larger fixed volume so that I could investigate whether the rate of reaction doubles when the hydrochloric acid doubles. I think that my experiment and overall investigation was carried out successfully. I kept to the regulations and maintained a fair test as best as I could, throughout the whole investigation. All the se results and graphs prove that the concentration factor does affect the rate of reaction. Books: GCSE Chemistry CPG revision guides. LETTS Revise Chemistry GCSE Internet Sites: www.ucdsb.on.ca/tiss/stretton/chem2/ratex.htm www.gcsescience.com/rc.htm www.wpbschoolhouse.btinternet.co.uk/ page03/3_31rates.htm CD-Rom The Times GCSE Chemistry. ...read more.

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