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Investigate whether or not temperature affects the rate of reaction in an experiment.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework In this investigation I will be using CaCO3 in the form of marble chips, and will be reacting these chips with hydrochloric acid. The equation for this is below. Aim: I am trying to investigate whether or not temperature affects the rate of reaction in an experiment. The experiment which I am doing is how temperature affects the rate of gas being given off when Hydrochloric Acid is added to Calcium Carbonate in the form of marble chips. 2HCL(aq) + CaCO3(s) ? H2O (l)+ CO2(g) + CaCl2(aq) Pre-experimentation Procedures, Assessments, and Predictions Before starting the experiments, I needed to do my risk assessment, find out some things about the chemicals I was going to be using, and make sure that I was fully prepared to do this task safely and efficiently. Hazards: Procedures: Acid - Corrosive, can spit when hot Wear safety goggles at all times. Bunsen Burner - Exposed flames Do not leave hair untied or let loose clothing flap The Collision Theory I predict that the hotter the acid is, then the faster the rate of reaction will be. I can back this prediction up by stating the 'Collision Theory', and the 'Maxwell Boltzmann Distribution' theory. When two chemicals react, their molecules have to collide with each other with sufficient energy for the reaction to take place. This is collision theory. The two molecules will only react if they have enough energy. ...read more.

Middle

In this experiment, it is important that the amounts are the same because it must be a fair test, in order to get the most accurate results possible. Throughout all of the experiments, I will be taking readings every 5 seconds, in order to get the amount of gas given off with quite small intervals between, so I can measure the rate of reaction accurately, I also did this in my preliminary experiment. When I plot these on a graph, it will show me quite well how fast the rate was, and if there were any changes and where they came. When I have got a full set of results, I will then have to repeat these in order to make sure that none of them are anomalous. This will be a very important stage in the experiment, as it verifies the results and makes them valid. I am going to do a minimum of 5 different temperatures, and make sure that they are repeatable. The temperatures that I am planning to investigate are 5�, 10�, Room Temperature, 20� and 30�, and then I will try and reproduce these results. My results will be quite accurate, as I will be able to measure to 2 decimal places when weighing out the calcium carbonate, and a detailed measuring cylinder will be able to give me quite a good degree of accuracy when measuring out the 20cm3of acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

The Collision Theory explains how chemical reactions take place and why rates of reaction alter. For a reaction to occur the reactant particles must collide. Only a certain fraction of the total collisions cause chemical change; these are called successful collisions. The successful collisions have sufficient energy (activation energy) at the moment of impact to break the existing bonds and form new bonds, resulting in the products of the reaction. Increasing the concentration of the reactants and raising the temperature bring about more collisions and therefore more successful collisions, increasing the rate of reaction. This is obviously very relevant to my experiment, and it talks about how and why the rate of reaction increases. The next thing to explain my results with is the Maxwell Boltzmann Distribution Theory. The diagram shows the relationship between the temperature, and the speed of the reaction. Results The next few pages will be dedicated to showing the graphs that I have created to represent my results. All of the graphs have been made from the averages of the first and repeat experiments, therefore partially cancelling out any anomalous points from the readings. Below is the graph showing the relationship between the rate of reaction and the temperature, which is a very useful graph for this experiment. These graphs are very good indicators of how the experiment went, and what the outcome was like. I mentioned before my worry over variables, but I am sure that none of these will have made a significant impact on my results. Harry Mackarness ...read more.

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