• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9

Investigate whether the concentration of acid effects the speed of the weathering of limestone

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Purpose of Experiment This experiment is to investigate whether the concentration of acid effects the speed of the weathering of limestone. Plan In this experiment, we will subject a certain amount of limestone to different concentrations of acid. We will analyse the time taken to emit a certain quantity of gas in order to discover the rate of reaction. Pre-trial run We found that the pre-trial run was very helpful as it enabled us to determine the amount of substances needed to make our experiment successful. We tested the highest and lowest measures of acid in order to investigate the extremities. We found that the lowest acid measure took a lengthy amount of time to complete so we decided that we will swirl the experiments to speed them up. The pre-trial run was also helpful because it allowed us to compare results with other groups to judge whether we were correct. We also made sure we used the same quantities as other groups so that we could share results. It also helped us resolve any problems or queries we had and was good practice to make sure we do not ruin the actual experiment. The final thing it helped us decide on was that we should measure the time in seconds not minutes as to have more accurate results which will be easier to round up and plot on our graph later. Safety During this experiment, I will make sure that I do not rush about in the laboratory and cause an accident. ...read more.

Middle

This reference was written by Jim Winkley. Reference 2 states that acid rain is often carried a long distance from its source. This means that places where acid rain is frequent may not be to blame for it. This also explains how forests and lakes become contaminated. It also states that acid rain is not always in the form of rain, but it can also be snow or fog. This means that the correct term is actually 'acid deposition.' This reference was from Microsoft Encarta encyclopaedia 2001 and can be found under ''Acid Rain Damage.'' Reference 3 is regarding the attempts to clean up acid rain. A ventri air scrubber removes polluting particles from gas emissions. If this is used to treat fossil fuel smoke then it could considerably reduce acid rain. This reference was found on Microsoft Encarta encyclopaedia 2001 and can be found under the section ''Anatomy of an Air Scrubber.'' Reference 4 says that acid rain is caused by industrial emissions mixing with atmospheric moisture. It also says that only recently has the problem become severe and widespread enough to spark international concern. This source was from the ''Air Pollution and Acid Rain'' section of Microsoft Encarta encyclopaedia 2001. Reference 5 is a diagram of the formation of acid rain and its effects. It shows that acid rain begins in factories, which are quite often burning fossil fuels. It then forms and artificial cloud as the pollutant particles mix with moisture. ...read more.

Conclusion

This means that acid that is more dilute produces a slower reaction. I found that my prediction was correct, I predicted the rate to be slower when the acid was more dilute. My results prove this because the average time for 100% acid was 14. 33 seconds and the average time for 20% was 83. 12 seconds. All of the other results fitted quite evenly in between these two. I found this because when there were only acid particles (100%) reacting with limestone particles, many more collisions took place. This produced a much faster rate. When there were only 20% acid particles there were 20% less collisions. I discovered that the rate of reaction for 100% acid was 5. 8 times faster than for 20%. In my prediction, I had said it would be five times faster but I had not taken into account the fact that it would slow towards the end of the trial. I also found that the temperature had no visible effect because our results were varied on each day. For example one day one when trials one and three took place the results for 20% were 50. 97 and 105. 87. Then on day 2 when trials two and four took place the 20% results were 66. 70 and 108. 93. These results are very varied and prove that the temperature change was not enough to make any impact. My experiment shows that the effect of acid on limestone is greater when there is more acid and therefore proves that is the amount of pollutants in the air were reduced then the effect of acid rain would be less. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Concentration of Vinegar

    I think that by presenting my results in a table it is visually easy to see what results I got for different things and the different attempts. Analysis I then proceeded to find the molarity of each of the vinegars using the average values I had obtained from the experiment.

  2. Investigating the effects of varying pH levels on the germination of cress seeds

    Using the same five labelled 10cm� syringes, I added a further 10cm� of each solution to the corresponding sample petri dishes. I repeated these daily tasks every 24 hours for a further 4 days. Throughout the experiment, I did as much as I could to control all variables to make the experiment more accurate and fair.

  1. How much Iron (II) in 100 grams of Spinach Oleracea?

    being used in the reaction first to 10 cm3 and then to 5 cm3 as I realised that 10 cm3 was still taking too much Potassium Manganate (VII) (aq) to reach the end point of the reaction. I also found that the temperatures of the solutions under test were changing once the Potassium Manganate (VII)

  2. Investigating the effects of changing the concentration of different solutions on the refractive index ...

    Record the distance, r1, travelled by the microscope from where it starts to where it stops. Turn the microscope back to the starting point. Spread a small amount of lycopodium powder onto the surface of the solution. Again, adjust the microscope to have a clear picture of the coin.

  1. The effect of Acid Rain on Seed Germination.

    The seeds had secreted a colourless jelly in order to protect the seeds form drying out. Only 9/20 of the seeds had begun to establish roots and these roots were about 1.2mm long on average. Experiment 2: These cress seeds did not germinate because they had dried out.

  2. A solution of dilute sulphuric acid and then calculate the concentration of acid within ...

    Method 1. Wash weighing boat with distilled water and dry 2. Weigh 2.65g sodium carbonate 3. Put the sodium carbonate into a beaker. Pour distilled water into beaker and stir with glass rod. Wash the weighing boat several times over the beaker with distilled water to ensure all of the sodium carbonate has been transferred.

  1. Investigating the Effects of Increasing Copper Sulphate Solution Concentrations on the Germination of Cress ...

    Solution 2 (mg/l) 60 0.06 16.9 14 0.06 0 1.28 14 The 0mg/l and 0.06mg/l test: The t value was 1.28 and the degree of freedom was 14. This meant that I had to find the probability using the following column of the t distribution table: Decreasing value of p Degrees of freedom (df)

  2. What effects the rate of a reaction

    must be reached if the reaction is to take place. ------ If a collision between particles can produce sufficient energy a reaction will take place. Meaning only if they collide enough and in the right direction. Not an all collisions will results in a reaction.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work