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Investigate whether the concentration of acid effects the speed of the weathering of limestone

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Introduction

Purpose of Experiment This experiment is to investigate whether the concentration of acid effects the speed of the weathering of limestone. Plan In this experiment, we will subject a certain amount of limestone to different concentrations of acid. We will analyse the time taken to emit a certain quantity of gas in order to discover the rate of reaction. Pre-trial run We found that the pre-trial run was very helpful as it enabled us to determine the amount of substances needed to make our experiment successful. We tested the highest and lowest measures of acid in order to investigate the extremities. We found that the lowest acid measure took a lengthy amount of time to complete so we decided that we will swirl the experiments to speed them up. The pre-trial run was also helpful because it allowed us to compare results with other groups to judge whether we were correct. We also made sure we used the same quantities as other groups so that we could share results. It also helped us resolve any problems or queries we had and was good practice to make sure we do not ruin the actual experiment. The final thing it helped us decide on was that we should measure the time in seconds not minutes as to have more accurate results which will be easier to round up and plot on our graph later. Safety During this experiment, I will make sure that I do not rush about in the laboratory and cause an accident. ...read more.

Middle

This reference was written by Jim Winkley. Reference 2 states that acid rain is often carried a long distance from its source. This means that places where acid rain is frequent may not be to blame for it. This also explains how forests and lakes become contaminated. It also states that acid rain is not always in the form of rain, but it can also be snow or fog. This means that the correct term is actually 'acid deposition.' This reference was from Microsoft Encarta encyclopaedia 2001 and can be found under ''Acid Rain Damage.'' Reference 3 is regarding the attempts to clean up acid rain. A ventri air scrubber removes polluting particles from gas emissions. If this is used to treat fossil fuel smoke then it could considerably reduce acid rain. This reference was found on Microsoft Encarta encyclopaedia 2001 and can be found under the section ''Anatomy of an Air Scrubber.'' Reference 4 says that acid rain is caused by industrial emissions mixing with atmospheric moisture. It also says that only recently has the problem become severe and widespread enough to spark international concern. This source was from the ''Air Pollution and Acid Rain'' section of Microsoft Encarta encyclopaedia 2001. Reference 5 is a diagram of the formation of acid rain and its effects. It shows that acid rain begins in factories, which are quite often burning fossil fuels. It then forms and artificial cloud as the pollutant particles mix with moisture. ...read more.

Conclusion

This means that acid that is more dilute produces a slower reaction. I found that my prediction was correct, I predicted the rate to be slower when the acid was more dilute. My results prove this because the average time for 100% acid was 14. 33 seconds and the average time for 20% was 83. 12 seconds. All of the other results fitted quite evenly in between these two. I found this because when there were only acid particles (100%) reacting with limestone particles, many more collisions took place. This produced a much faster rate. When there were only 20% acid particles there were 20% less collisions. I discovered that the rate of reaction for 100% acid was 5. 8 times faster than for 20%. In my prediction, I had said it would be five times faster but I had not taken into account the fact that it would slow towards the end of the trial. I also found that the temperature had no visible effect because our results were varied on each day. For example one day one when trials one and three took place the results for 20% were 50. 97 and 105. 87. Then on day 2 when trials two and four took place the 20% results were 66. 70 and 108. 93. These results are very varied and prove that the temperature change was not enough to make any impact. My experiment shows that the effect of acid on limestone is greater when there is more acid and therefore proves that is the amount of pollutants in the air were reduced then the effect of acid rain would be less. ...read more.

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