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Investigatethe Energy Change during Neutralisation Reactions.

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Introduction

Investigate the Energy Change during Neutralisation Reactions Equipment List * Calorimeter - This polystyrene device will hold the acids in the neutralisation reaction. This has been used, as it is a very good insulator of heat so as little as possible will be lost. * Burette - This glass device can hold 50 cm3 of liquid and will be used to pour the acid in 1cm3 amounts into the alkali. This device has been used, as it is very accurate and easy to use. * Thermometer - This will be used to measure the temperature of the reaction after each 1cm3 of acid has been added. * Clamp Stand and Burette Holder - These will be used to keep the burette in place so it does not fall over and break or spill acid. * Strong and Weak Acid - Hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid will be used for the strong acid and ethanoic acid will be used for the weak acid. 40 cm3 will be used to neutralise the alkali. * Strong and Weak Alkali: Sodium hydroxide will be used for the strong alkali and ammonia will be used for the weak. We will use 15cm3 of alkali at 1 mole per decimetre cube concentration. Preliminary Work Previously I performed a thermotitration with a strong acid and a strong alkali and I found that the following quantities would be suitable for my experiment: 15cm3 of alkali would neutralise well within 15% accuracy compared to the theoretical energy output. ...read more.

Middle

1.1 25.5 6.0 0.9 25.5 6.0 1.0 25.5 6.0 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.2 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.0 24.5 5.0 1.0 24.5 5.0 1.0 24.5 5.0 1.0 24.5 5.0 1.0 24.5 5.0 1.0 24.5 5.0 0.9 24.5 5.0 1.1 24.0 4.5 1.0 24.0 4.5 1.1 24.0 4.5 1.0 24.0 4.5 1.0 24.0 4.5 1.0 24.0 4.5 1.0 24.0 4.5 1.0 24.0 4.5 1.0 23.5 4.0 Ethanoic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide (weak and strong) Start temperature 19.5�C Volume of Acid (cm3) Temperature (�C) Cumulative Temperature Change (�C) 1.0 19.5 0.0 1.0 19.5 0.0 0.9 19.5 0.0 1.0 20.0 0.5 0.9 20.0 0.5 1.2 20.5 1.0 1.0 20.5 1.0 0.9 21.0 1.5 0.9 21.5 2.0 1.0 22.0 2.5 1.2 22.0 2.5 0.8 22.5 3.0 1.0 23.0 3.5 1.0 23.5 4.0 1.1 24.0 4.5 1.2 24.0 4.5 0.7 24.5 5.0 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 0.9 25.5 6.0 1.1 25.5 6.0 1.0 25.5 6.0 1.0 26.0 6.5 1.1 26.0 6.5 0.9 26.0 6.5 1.0 26.0 6.5 1.3 25.5 6.0 0.6 25.5 6.0 0.8 25.5 6.0 1.0 25.5 6.0 1.4 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.1 25.0 5.5 0.9 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 1.0 25.0 5.5 Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide (strong and strong) ...read more.

Conclusion

The method I used did not include any repetition of experiments due to the time restrictions. To improve the accuracy I would do each experiment 5 times then take an average leading to more accurate results. There were many problems encountered in this experiment and it is reflected in some of our results. One of our results had an error of 30%. This could be due to many reasons. On the graphs it shows the acid being added in 1cm3 amounts yet this was for ease of presentation. The amounts added were not always the specified amount and this resulted in the time for the acid to be added was increased or decreased. This could lead to the results being anomalous. Another reason for anomalous results occurring could be human error in the measurement of temperature or amounts of liquid. This could lead to the accuracy of results being affected. Due to the nature of the school laboratory it is possible for the solutions used to become contaminated and the pH to become changed. This could also have altered the results for my experiment. Apart from these possibilities I believe that the test I conducted was a fair one and complied with the statements I made in my plan. I believe that if I carried out the work stated above I would be more confidant of my conclusions. This is because the results ascertained from the above procedures would be a great deal more accurate than the method I used in my experiment. Peter Mitchell 11N Chemistry ...read more.

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