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Investigating difference in Abiotic Factors and species diversity in two ponds.

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Introduction

Investigating difference in Abiotic Factors and species diversity in too ponds. Aim- To investigate the distribution of invertebrates in two pond ecosystems. In this investigation I will be studying the distinction in abiotic factors and species diversity in the two ponds. The two ponds that I will be looking at to achieve my results is meadow pond which was man made in 1994 and Woodland pond which is mad made in 1990 and is surrounded by deciduous trees like oak and ash, which loose their leaves during the season of the year when there is in short water supply. Several physical factors affect the distribution of organisms in their habitats. These physical factors are often referred to as abiotic. Abiotic is referred to not living. Biotic factors which involve the effects of other living organisms including plant with the type and distribution to feed on also the food availability and the competition of invertebrates. The Abiotic factors include oxygen concentration, pollution, light intensity, and water temperature and substrate depth. Other factors comprise of invertebrate diversity, number of detrivores/decomposer compared to herbivores and carnivores and number of Herbivores compared to detrivores and carnivores. * I predict that light intensity would be higher in the meadow pond as there is no shading from the trees so more light reaching the pond. ...read more.

Middle

Results and analysis Summary of Aboitic results Variables Meadow pond Woodland pond Hypothesis Water temp 10.66 9.68 Right Light intensity 3186 666 Right Oxygen concentration 50.67 36.25 Right pH 6 7 Right Substrate Depth 4.6 13.7 Right Meadow pond - Simpson's diversity index Species No. of individual (n). (n-1) n(n-1) Alderfly larvae 20 19 380 Beetle larvae 10 9 90 Biting midge larvae 2 1 2 Black fly larvae 1 0 0 Bloodworm 91 90 8190 Damselfly larvae 6 5 30 Flatworm 35 34 1190 Freshwater hoglouse 123 122 15006 Freshwater shrimp 54 53 28620 Greater water boatman 1 0 0 Leech 9 8 72 Lesser water boatman 2 1 2 Mayfly nymphs 288 287 82656 Phantom midge larvae 78 77 6006 Water beetle 1 0 0 Pond snail 40 39 1560 Ram shorn snail 4 3 12 Water flea 1457 1456 2121392 Water spider 2 1 2 Bivalves molluscs 4 3 12 Whirligig beetle 1 0 0 Water mites 10 9 90 N 2239 n(n-1) 2241114 Simpson's Diversity index= N (N-1) -------- = 2239 times 2238= 5010882 n (n-1) ----------- = 2.24 2241114 Species No. of individuals (n-1) n(n-1) Biting midge larvae 7 6 42 Blackfly larvae 9 8 72 Bloodworm 84 83 6972 Ceaseless caddis fly larvae 2 1 2 Damselfly nymph 28 27 756 Dragonfly nymph 5 4 20 ...read more.

Conclusion

However it was not meant to be because there are decomposers in the wood land pond as they work best in acidic conditions. This is maybe because we measured the pH at the edge of both ponds. The centre of the woodland pond maybe more acidic. Substrate data From the data it can be seen then the woodland pond has a higher level of substrate with a reading of 13.7 than meadow pond with a reading of 4.6. This is a result from deciduous trees which loose their leaves and then fall into pond. Evaluation Limitations 1. Some species are not accurately counted, for example water flea which are very small which disrupts biomass. Also some species may escape from the net as they are very tiny. Also decomposers such as micro organisms may escape from the net which disrupts the biomass. 2. Less visibility in mud areas so not reliable in the number of species found. 3. Different people have different techniques as so their sampling is not the same. 4. Substrate depth not accurate due to the metre rule not placed correctly on the pond bed-obstacles and also no access to middle pond 5. Temperature - might vary at different times as we only took the readings on 1 day. As the result might vary on another day. 6. Ph inaccuracy - only did it on the edge of the pond ...read more.

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