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Investigating Energy Changes During a Neutralisation Reaction

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Introduction

Investigating Energy Changes During a Neutralisation Reaction Plan Set up the apparatus as above, measure the temperature before any acid is introduced to the sodium hydroxide, of which there will be 30ml. Then, open the burette, and let some acid enter the beaker and the NaOH. When the solution becomes neutral, stop the flow of acid going into the beaker immediately, and measure the temperature. Repeat this 3 times, and take a mean average of the results. Prediction I predict that the higher the concentration, the higher the energy change will be. This is because in a higher concentration, there will be more of an alkali to be neutralised, and more energy will be changed. Obtaining Results I will be measuring five different concentrations of Sodium Hydroxide. These will be: > 20% > 40% > 60% > 80% > 100% I believe that this is an adequate number of measurements to form a valid conclusion. ...read more.

Middle

% Increase 100 20.0 26.8 7.0 25.9 80 20.0 25.8 5.8 22.6 60 20.0 23.7 3.7 15.5 40 20.0 23.0 3.0 13.0 20 20.0 22.4 2.4 10.7 Conclusion I have found that the higher the concentration, the more heat energy is released. This is because in a higher concentration, there will be more of an alkali to be neutralised, and more chemical energy will be changed into heat energy. Chemical Energy neutralisation HEAT ENERGY (alkali) (neutral) Evaluation I think this experiment was successful, because I have found no results which are clear anomalies. When conducting the experiment, I used heat insulating beakers to hold contain the solution. I believe that the results are very accurate, and this is reflected in the fact that the mean average was a figure close to all three results obtained in each category, all results gained including averages fit the trend of the results I had expected. ...read more.

Conclusion

In addition, I would like to investigate the possibility that my graph would level off and have a very small or no gradient at all at either or both of the extreme concentrations. To do this, I could investigate more frequent values at the extreme concentrations. I could investigate measurements such as 85%, 90%, and 95% at high concentrations, and 5%, 10%, and 15%. The graph with more detailed concentrations may look like any of those below: However, I would expect all the graphs to be straight lines with no levelling off. I believe the effect I have measured is: Units of Alkali produce = Units of Heat Energy I could also investigate the speed of the reaction and the amount of heat produced in time. I would expect most of the heat to be produced at the beginning of the reaction, because the reaction reduces the concentration of the alkali as it progresses. ...read more.

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