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Investigating Factors Affecting a Chemical Reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Aim - Investigating Factors Affecting a Chemical Reaction Chemical reactions take place in all living and non- living things. As a chemical reaction takes place the reactants concentration decreases and the concentration of products increases with time. The rate of reaction (reaction velocity) can be defined as the rate of change in concentration of a stated reactant or product with time. The rate of a reactant per unit if time or the amount of a product produces per unit of time. Collision Theory In order for a reaction to occur it is necessary that particles collide/collision theory. In order for a reaction to take place particles need to collide and the collision must have sufficient amount of energy. If this does occur then the original bonds are broken and new bond are formed- so this means new products are formed. If you want to make a reaction collide faster, then you need to: * Get more particles to collide together, which mean more collision. * Make them bump into each other harder * Make each bump more likely to break bonds. E.g. Using the collision theory to explain the factors affecting the rate of the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid. The main factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction are; * Surface area of reactant * Concentration of reactant * Temperature at which the reaction is carried out Use of a catalyst Surface Area The surface area has an effect on the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

* I learnt from the trial experiment when reacting Mg with HCL, that it is quite hard to start a stopwatch, pour and stick a bung into the conical flak all at the same time, so I will get someone to assist me while doing so. Concentration 1. Measure 5g of calcium carbonate with each of the different concentrations (i.e. medium, small) 2. Pour the 5g of calcium carbonate adding HCL acid (varying from 25cm3- 5 cm3 ) 3. Add H2O depending on the vol. of HCL acid (i.e. 20 cm3 HCL being 5 cm3 of H2O) 4. When you have added the calcium carbonate, hydrochloric acid and water into the conical flask close the bung and record the speed it will take to reach 40 cm3 of gas (CO2) for each volume of HCL and H2O reading. 5. Rinse conical flask. Surface Area 1. Measure 5g of calcium carbonate with each size varying. 2. Add 15 cm3 of H2O and 10 cm3 of HCL acid. 3. Add calcium carbonate, hydrochloric acid and water into conical flask and close the bung and record the volume of gas collected every 10 seconds for 90 seconds. 4. Repeat each size 5. Thoroughly rinse the conical flask out. Temperature 1. Measure 5g of calcium carbonate with each size varying. 2. Use same acid-water mixture of 15 cm3 of HCL and 10 cm3 of H2O respectively for all the temperatures to be investigated. 3. Place mixture unto a beaker and place a thermometer to record your acquired temperature. ...read more.

Conclusion

For my 3rd experiment, investigating the factors affecting temperature the time taken for the large Calcium Carbonate to measure 40 cm3 of gas at 30 degrees took 32 seconds which was shorter than expected. The possible causes of these anomalies results could be due to the fact that we cannot be sure whether the Calcium Carbonate was pure enough, because their could have been rocks or small salts in the Calcium Carbonate which increases the amount of time. The kettles may have had lime scale present which means the rate of reaction will slow down, due to the lime scale interference with the process of reaction. Generally the method gave evidence that can be deemed as reliable due to the lack of anomalies. These anomalies can be due to the above causes. A fair test was strictly kept in all experiments. The evidence is thus enough to draw a conclusion on the rates of reaction. Enough to say that 'the rate of reaction increases when temperature, concentration and surface area increases. However at the same time, more repetitions of the experiment would make the results even more reliable. Not only repetitions at one point in time but repetitions over a number of weeks to make sure those factors such as atmospheric pressure, room temperature and drafts do not interfere with the results. Repeating the experiment over time will take this into account. After having done the experiment a graph of means can be worked out bringing a pod of evidence together to draw a tight conclusion. ...read more.

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