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Investigating Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework - Investigating Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction I intend to find out if a change in concentration will have an effect on the rate of reaction between acid and calcium carbonate. I am going to use hydrochloric acid, and the calcium carbonate will represent limestone, so therefore I am investigating the reaction behind acid rain. The effects of acid rain appear to be more severe in hotter countries and areas close to or down-wind from major sources of sulphur dioxide emitters. This is why I can change the concentration of hydrochloric acid, to give the impression of acid rain in an area closer to a sulphur dioxide emitter. Sulphuric acid is a slow reactant, therefore I am using hydrochloric acid to speed up the reaction. I will still be able to investigate the rate of reaction though, as changing the acid will not affect this. The other factor I could alter for this investigation is temperature, to give the illusion of acid rain in hotter countries, but I have chosen to alter the concentration of acid as I think it will be an easier investigation to carry out. I predict that the higher the concentration, the faster the reaction rate. I predict this because of my scientific knowledge of the collision theory. This theory is that the rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. More collisions increase the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore the length of time I measure for, the amount of liquid, the equipment, the procedure and the amount of marble chips must remain the same. Designing the Results Table I will record my results in the same table as I recorded my pilot test results in as it was simple to use and an easy format. Example Amount of Acid (cm3) Amount of Water (cm3) Amount of Co2 in cm3 given off after... 15 secs 30 secs 45 secs 60 secs Additional Points I have to repeat my measurements more than once to ensure accurate results. It is only possible to vary one factor at a time for this investigation, or I would not know which factor was affecting the rate of reaction. Obtaining Evidence Results for Investigation 1 Amount of Acid (cm�) Amount of Water (cm�) Amount of CO2 in cm� given off after ... 15 secs 30 secs 45 secs 60 secs 30 0 19 36 51 75 25 5 18 35 50 73 20 10 17 34 49 64 15 15 13 21 32 43 10 20 7 13 18 26 5 25 3 4 5 6 0 30 0 0 0 0 Results for Investigation 2 Amount of Acid (cm�) Amount of Water (cm�) Amount of CO2 in cm� given off after ... 15 secs 30 secs 45 secs 60 secs 30 0 18 37 50 76 25 5 17 36 49 72 20 10 16 33 48 65 15 15 12 22 30 42 10 20 6 11 17 25 5 25 1 3 5 7 0 30 0 0 0 0 Results for Investigation 3 Amount of Acid (cm�) ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation My results were very accurate as my graph shows a fitting line of best fit with no anomalies. Also, when I was finding the average results for the points to be plotted on the graph, I could include all of my results as there were no anomalies there either which might have affected the final results. There was nothing in my investigation that I found difficult or awkward to do. I chose to investigate the effect of concentration on rate of reaction rather than temperature as I thought it would be easier, as getting a solution to a particular temperature and maintaining it could be tricky. Therefore I found my method simple and easy to carry out. I think using the gas syringe ensured accurate results as it is a simple piece of equipment to use but produces quite detailed and accurate readings. It is definitely a better method than using a measuring cylinder, counting bubbles etc. I think my method and equipment ensured accurate results but if I was to try and get more accurate results I could use more frequent changes in concentration, e.g. measure every 2cm3 of acid to water instead of every 5cm3. This would give me a wider range of results, making it clearer to see any anomalies. I think as my graph had a line of best fit with no anomalies and I did not notice any anomalies when finding the averages of my 3 investigations, my results are accurate enough to support a strong conclusion. Conclusion The higher the concentration, the faster the reaction rate. Vickie Cannam 11C/Y Chemistry Coursework Page 1 of 6 Vickie Cannam 11C/Y ...read more.

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