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# Investigating factors that affect the rate of a reaction

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Introduction

PROJECT QUESTION Investigating factors that affect the rate of a reaction A chemical reaction is when substances chemically reacts to produce a new substance. The rate of a reaction is the number of chemical reactions per second. There are 4 factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction. They are: > Temperature > Surface area > Concentration of solution > Catalyst AIM To investigate experimentally the effects of the concentration of a solution on the reaction rate of calcium carbonate, using 5 different solutions of HCl. Figure 1- Diagram of apparatus used in this investigation SCIENTIFIC THEORY The equation for the reaction is: CaCO3 + 2HC l CaC l2 + CO2 + H2O When reacting particles gain enough energy they vibrate and move faster. This initial energy is known as the activation energy, and it is needed to break the initial bonds. Before they can react, molecules, atoms or ions have to bump into each other and the collision must be hard enough to bring about bond breaking. Chemical reactions involve the outer electrons of atoms. Energy is always transferred and new compounds are produced during a reaction. During reactions, electrons change their position The rate of a reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. To speed up the reaction, the particles must collide more vigorously and more often. The collision theory is used to explain that particles can only react if they collide with enough energy. There are four factors that effect the rate of a chemical reaction. My variable is the concentration of the solution. As all the other factors change the reaction rate then they must be kept constant to make it a fair test. The concentration will be less by diluting the Hydrochloric Acid with distilled water. The rate of a reaction can be measured in different ways. How quickly the product of the reaction is formed is just one way. ...read more.

Middle

However the number of successive collisions will be less and so will be the rate of the reaction as a result. This is because the hydrochloric acid is the only active reagent as proved by the control. The control showed that calcium carbonate does not react with water. The control proved that calcium carbonate does not react with water molecules as no reaction took place. We know this because no carbon dioxide gas was given off and no bubbles were seen. When the concentration of the acid solution was 0.125M, no Carbon Dioxide gas was measured to have been given off. However it is known that a reaction did take place and that some carbon dioxide gas was given off as bubbles were noticed. Carbon Dioxide gas might have not been measured to have given off because the beaker was quite large and only a small amount might have been produced which was not enough to push the syringe plunger. The control proved that the Hydrochloric acid was the active reagent in the reaction As I am investigating how the concentration of a solution affects the rate of the reaction, I drew Table 2 to calculate the rate of the reaction, as: Rate = 1 0 Time when 2.25cm3 of gas had been produced For the time taken, I chose the times when all reactions had produced 2.25cm3 of gas because all of the lines represented different experiments which gave of different volumes of gas. 2.25cm3 was chosen because it was the most amount of gas that the reaction with 0.25M hydrochloric acid (one of smallest concentrations) had produced. I took the readings for the time taken to produce the 2.25cm3 of gas from Graph 1 as not all reactions produced this exact amount of gas at their 30 second intervals. Graph 2 shows the rate of reaction for each of the different concentrations of acid. It is clearly visible that the rate of reaction increases as does the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

This was due to a lack of time to repeat the procedure. For my conclusions to be reliable they would have to be based on a wide range of data. An extension of this work could be to repeat the experiment a further two times so that a mean result could be obtained and the anomalies further investigated. A conclusion drawn from that data could be compared to my current conclusions to see how accurate my present interpretations are. To further investigate the concentration of Hydrochloric acid on the rate of a reaction I could in the following different ways: * Precipitation * Change in mass (gas given off) To further investigate the rates of reactions I could look at experimentally, another factor that effects the rate and compare my findings to this experiment. I think I would look at the surface area of the marble chips. It would provide me with more evidence about changing the rate of a reaction which I could compare to this investigation. If looking at the surface area I would weigh out 1 gram of calcium carbonate in the following sizes: > Large marble chips > Medium marble chips > Small marble chips > Very small marble chips > Powder form The different sized forms of calcium carbonate would have different surface areas. The 5 different calcium carbonate forms would each be added to 10ml of Hydrochloric Acid and the rate of each of the reactions would be measured by the change in the product's mass. When using the powder form of calcium carbonate I would have to be particularly careful as the reaction would be big. This would be measured by a gas syringe which would tell me how much gas the reaction gives off. I would use the same concentrations of hydrochloric acid, same temperature and same method as the investigation that I have already conducted. This is so that I can cross-reference how the concentration of the acid and the surface area of the reactant affect the rate of the reaction. ...read more.

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