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Investigating for Cations and Anions.

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Investigation 1.1A Investigating for Cations and Anions In this experiment I will investigate what cations and anions are present in various compounds. This will include carrying out a qualitative analysis, because I need to find out what type of cations and anions are there and not quantitative analysis, which includes finding out how much of each element there is. Safety Points: * Wear glasses * Wear gloves * Do not mix more than two solutions * Only mix the solutions listed by the teacher * Handle the chemicals with extreme care * Put the chemical solutions into a test-tube which is resting on a test-tube holder * Follow school lab safety procedures. Materials: * Various chemicals. * Test tubes. * Boiling tubes. * Pipettes. * Test tube holder. * Bench mat. Method * I first copied the chemical solutions listed. * I put on some gloves and safety glasses. * I got a test-tube holder and placed five test-tubes in it. Cations * I added the test solutions Copper Chloride to the test-tube. ...read more.


* A white precipitate appeared that indicated that there were Sulphate ions present. * I then recorded all of my results and repeated the entire experiment again to make sure everything was correctly done. * I then repeated the entire experiment again, with limewater as the solution added, to get a negative result. Solution Used Solution Added Result Testing For Cations/Anions Copper Chloride Sodium Hydroxide Positive Blue Precipitate Copper (CU ) Cations Copper Chloride Lime Water Negative Copper (CU ) Cations Iron Chloride Sodium Hydroxide Positive Brown precipitate Iron (Fe ) Cations Iron Chloride Lime Water Negative Iron (Fe ) Cations Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Dilute Acid Positive Limewater turned cloudy/milky Carbonate (CO ) Anions Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Lime Water Negative Carbonate (CO ) Anions Lithium Chloride Acidified Silver Nitrate Positive White precipitate Chloride (Cl ) Anions Lithium Chloride Lime Water Negative Chloride (Cl) Anions Copper Sulphate Barium Chloride Positive White precipitate Sulphate (SO ) Anions Copper Sulphate Lime Water Negative Sulphate (SO ) Anions Evaluation The problems I encountered while doing this experiment were:- * I didn't know what the difference was between cations and anions and I tested for the wrong things. ...read more.


This would greatly increase the accuracy and reliability of this technique. Vocational Implications There are similar techniques used in the industry for example: when you find a new substance which is unknown, so that means that you need to check what elements there are present. This method could be automated and done on the computer but when it comes down to putting the substance to the test it needs to be done by hand. You also need a variety of scales so you can check that the result is the same. For example: you can use more substance and add a little bit of solution, you can use a little bit of the substance and add a lot of solution or you can put the substance to the test by adding different types of solution. When doing these tests you need to use safety rules just like in any other lab, but because you are working with chemicals you need to make sure you got clear space to work on, that you wear goggles and a lab coat and that you do not spill any of these chemicals because you could have dangerous outcomes to it. Hamza Abib 10BY GNVQ Science - 1 - ...read more.

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