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Investigating Heat Produced in Endothermic Reactions.

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Introduction

Investigating Heat Produced in Endothermic Reactions Aim: I will investigate the factors that affect the heat produced in the reaction of an acid and a hydroxide. Introduction: When an acid is added to a hydroxide heat is produced this is because the reactants have more energy than the products. If it were the other way round, the reactants have less energy than the products, it is an exothermic reaction. Endothermic Reaction Endothermic reactions are those that absorb heat energy. Energy is needed to break apart the bonds of the reactants and this is greater than the energy released when the chemicals recombine to form the products. Hence the enthalpy of the products is greater than that of the reactants, as indicated in this energy profile. ...read more.

Middle

Exothermic reactions are more common than endothermic reactions precisely because they only require activation energy to start, then they will give off energy rather than require it. Prediction: I predict that the lower the concentration of the hydrochloric acid the less heat will be given off. This is because there is a smaller probability that hydrogen ions will collide with hydroxide ions with enough energy to form bonds forming water. There is less probability as there are less partials per litre. Preliminary work: Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide with the hydrochloric acids concentration changing. Concentration Start Temperature End Temperature Difference 2M 22.8 32.8 10 0.125M 22.7 23.2 0.5 This shows me that there is still enough of a change when the concentration of the hydrochloric acid is 0.125M to use this concentration. ...read more.

Conclusion

Safety: To keep safe I will wear goggles all the time and I will read all risk assessments relevant to the chemicals I am using. Equipment list: * Measuring cylinders x2 * Thermometer * Polystyrene cup * 1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) * 2M, 1M, 0.5M, 0.25M, 0.125M hydrochloric acid (HCl) Results Graph Analysis From my results I can see that I was right in my prediction when I said that the lower the concentration of the hydrochloric acid the less heat will be given off. This is because there is a smaller probability that hydrogen ions will collide with hydroxide ions with enough energy to form bonds forming water. There is less probability as there are less partials per litre. I also used the equation E=MC0 to find out the energy produced. I can also see that there were some anomalous results but the general trend fits my prediction. Adam Rodwell ...read more.

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