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Investigating how concentration affects reaction rates.

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Introduction

Reaction Rates Concentration Plan: I am going to investigate, how concentration affects reaction rates. By timing how long it takes, for the volume of Carbon Dioxide produced to reach to 100 cm3. Factors, which will affect the performance of the reaction rate concentration experiment, are: * The volume of hydrochloric acid and water. * The time. * The acid concentration. * Size of marble chips surface area. * Catalyst. * Temperature. Reaction rates occur at different speeds, some happen very fast such as explosions and some very slow like rusting. Three conditions must be met in order for a reaction to occur. * The substances must touch each other. (Pour the two substances into a conical flask) * They must be positioned so that the reacting groups are together for the Transition State. * The collision must have enough energy to form the Transition state (Transition - Process of changing from one state to another). If any of these circumstances is not met it will make the reaction slower. Reactions only happen if the particles collide with enough energy. At a higher temperature there will be more particles colliding with sufficient energy for the reaction to proceed. This energy at the beginning is understood as Activation Energy that is required to break the bonds. ...read more.

Middle

The volume of acid and water will add up to 20cm3. 1. First we will set up the stands, connecting the Burette and gas syringe to each of their own stand. Also placing the conical flask next to the gas syringe. 2. We will measure 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid and 10cm3 of water and will pour the solutions together in the conical flask. 3. We will pour 4grams of Marble chips into the conical flask, and will immediately seal the cork on the gas syringe to the conical flask. We will also spread the equipment apart, so the gas produced will flow easily. 4. We will time the rate it takes to get to, 100cm3 of carbon dioxide produced. 5. Then it will be recorded in the table, and the experiment will be continued. Fair Test: We can make the experiment fair, by accurately pouring the right volume of hydrochloric acid and water. Also we should make sure when putting the filter paper on the weighing scale, it is on 0 grams. I will make sure the acid and water will be at the right volume in the individual burettes. These are things that are done to make the experiment fair. Accuracy: From the information of my preliminary work, I will do the real experiment with different alterations: * The volume of ...read more.

Conclusion

Things that I realized, which were wrong in the diagram was the five which were out of place in test 1 and 2. I noticed the mistakes when recording it when the time would be decreasing, the one afterwards would be increasing instead of decreasing maybe these mistakes occurred if we forgot to push the conical flask and Gas syringe apart. So the gas travelled slower through the tube connected to the gas syringe. Another reason could be, that the stopwatch was not be stopped at the precise time, due to the fact it is done manually. Another reason could be the amount of hydrochloric acid/ water measured might not have been accurate. The weight of the marble chips might not have been accurate, it might if increased by 0.01grams. The good point of the experiment is I could still get quite an accurate pattern. Preliminary work was good use for me to have good background knowledge to understand how to do the experiment. The method given helped to make the test fair and was used as a guideline for the experiment. These are things that should be done to make the experiment accurate, the test should have been repeated three times. To properly prove accuracy, but this was unable to be done due to careless mistakes. That is an improvement of the experiment to do it again. ...read more.

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