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Investigating how Concentration Affects the Rate of Reaction Between Magnesium Ribbon and Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

Investigating how Concentration Affects the Rate of Reaction Between Magnesium Ribbon and Hydrochloric Acid Aim: We intend to look at the different factors that affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. This variable will affect the time it takes for the two substances react, depending on a variation of the factor. Some of these factors are: * Surface Area * Temperature * Catalysts * Concentration * Pressure * Stirring / Mixing However, some of these variables cannot be tested easily or accurately, so only one variable will be chosen. The variable I have chosen is concentration, using up to 3 molar hydrochloric acid. Background Information Here is some information on how * Surface Area - If you increase the surface area of the substance you are trying to react with another then there are more available molecules to collide with the other substance's molecules. This increases the rate of reaction. * Temperature - For a reaction to take place, the collision theory states that there must be enough energy to break the existing bonds. What happens when you increase the temperature is that the molecules get heated up, giving them more energy to move around faster, breaking bonds quicker. This helps increase the rate of reaction because the more the molecules move around, the more of a chance they will collide with other molecules and the reaction will occur faster. ...read more.

Middle

* I then cut all the magnesium ribbon I had into 5 cm lengths, ready to be dropped into the beaker. * For example, I get a beaker of 100ml of hydrochloric acid, diluted down to 1 molar of concentration. * When the magnesium ribbon is dropped into the beaker and a rubber cork is put in the neck of the beaker. The rubber cork is attached to a tube that leads from inside the beaker to the gas syringe. * Immediately as the magnesium is dropped into the beaker and the rubber cork put in place then the 3 stopwatches are started. * The stopwatches are stopped at different times; the first is topped when the syringe has reached 20mls of hydrogen. The second when the syringe has reached 40mls and the third, when it has reached 60mls. * The results are taken down on a table drawn by pencil and ruler, but then transferred onto a spreadsheet on a laptop. * This is done 3 times for each of the concentrations so we get a variation in results. Averages are then calculated. Fair Test These are the factors I looked at to make this a fair test: 1. I decided to keep everything that I used in the experiment constant, for example: Variable Explanation Temperature I will keep the temperature of the environment and the experiment at a constant room temperature, If this is changed then the results may be affected so I made sure that this does not happen. ...read more.

Conclusion

Then, however, the difference gets gradually smaller, as does the time for each concentration (as the concentration increases). For all of the results, for the most concentrated acid, the reaction happens as soon as the reactants are put in the beaker. The reason the difference between each results of each concentration gets less and less because there is probably a fixed time in which the reaction can take place, it cannot keep going faster and faster at split second times. This is why the graph curves towards being a straight line. These results follow a similar pattern to those of the 20 mls, with the steep gradient of line form 0.5 to 1 molar showing the difference in time. Then, however, the difference gets gradually smaller, as does the time for each concentration (as the concentration increases). You can also see that our results were fairly correct, as the results for the 40 molar tests were approximately double to that of the 20 molar results. Conclusion: I conclude that my prediction was correct in stating, when the concentration of the acid increases, increase in the number of molecules per 100 ml3, the time for the reaction to take place decreases. As stated by the collision theory and in my prediction, having more molecules in the same volume of solution will increase the chances of the molecules colliding with enough activation energy to react. ...read more.

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