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Investigating how the amount of copper affects the mass of the cathode

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION: In this experiment I will be investigating how the amount of copper affects the mass of the cathode. I will do this experiment twice so that I have an average of my results so that they are accurate. I have already done my preliminary work and from it, I have noticed that I will have to make some changes with the method of my experiment. AIM: In this experiment, I intend to find out how much copper in the solution affects the mass of the cathode. I will be observing to see what is happening and exactly how much copper is being deposited on the cathode. Out of the four variables that are listed below, I will be concentrating on the time the electrodes are left in the solution and the size of current that will be applied in this experiment. VARIABLES: There are four variables, which affect this investigation. The first variable is the size of the current applied in the solution. As the current raises so does amount of electrons that are produced on the cathode. This means the anode loses its positively charged ions, which the cathode gains, which means more positive ions, will combine with the electrons on the cathode to produce copper. The second variable that affects the experiment is the amount of time the experiment is carried out for. The greater the time the electrodes are left in the solution, the more time there is for the copper to be gathered at the anode. The third variable that affects the experiment is the temperature of the copper II sulphate solution. As the temperature of the solution increases, more of the ions gain kinetic energy and begin to move faster. This enables the positive and negative charged ions to collide faster with the electrodes. As more of the positive and negative ions collide, there is a greater chance for the pure copper to be formed at the cathode. ...read more.

Middle

All these changes helped me to gain more accurate results than previously. RESULTS: Here are my results for both experiments. TIME (MINS) CURRENT (AMPS) STARTING MASS OF ELCTRODES (g) MASS OF ANODE (g) (AFTER 10 MINUTES) MASS OF CATHODE (g) (AFTER 10 MINUTES) CHANGE OF WEIGHT AFTER 10 MINUTES (g) 10 0.5 ANODE = 1.1 CATHODE =1.0 1.0 1.1 ANODE = -0.1 CATHODE = +0.1 20 0.6 ANODE = 1.0 CATHODE =1.1 0.9 1.2 ANODE = -0.1 CATHODE = +0.1 30 0.7 ANODE = 0.9 CATHODE= 1.2 0.7 1.4 ANODE = -0.2 CATHODE = +0.2 40 0.8 ANODE=0.7 CATHODE =1.4 0.5 1.6 ANODE = -0.2 CATHODE = +0.2 50 0.9 ANODE = 0.5 CATHODE = 1.6 0.2 1.8 ANODE = -0.3 CATHODE =+0.2 TIME (MINS) CURRENT (AMPS) STARTING MASS OF ELECTRODES (g) MASS OF ANODE (g) (AFTER 10 MINUTES) MASS OF CATHODE (g) (AFTER 10 MINUTES) CHANGE OF WEIGHT AFTER 10 MINUTES (g) 10 0.5 ANODE = 0.9 CATHODE =0.9 0.8 1.0 ANODE =-0.1 CATHODE = +0.1 20 0.6 ANODE =0.8 CATHODE =1.0 0.6 1.2 ANODE = -0.2 CATHODE = +0.2 30 0.7 ANODE =0.6 CATHODE=1.2 0.4 1.4 ANODE = -0.2 CATHODE = +0.2 40 0.8 ANODE =0.4 CATHODE =1.4 0.3 1.5 ANODE = -0.1 CATHODE = +0.1 50 0.9 ANODE =0.3 CATHODE =1.5 0.1 1.7 ANODE= -0.2 CATHODE =+0.2 TIME (MINS) CURRENT (AMPS) CHANGE OF MASS AFTER 10 MINUTES EXPERIMENT 1 CHANGE OF MASS AFTER 10 MINUTES EXPERIMENT 2 AVERAGE OF EXPERIMENT 1 AND EXPERIMENT 2. (g) ANODE CATHODE ANODE CATHODE ANODE CATHODE 10 0.5 -0.1g +0.1g -0.1g +0.1g -0.1g +0.1g 20 0.6 -0.1g +0.1g -0.2g +0.2g -0.15g +0.15g 30 0.7 -0.2g +0.2g -0.2g +0.2g -0.2g +0.2g 40 0.8 -0.2g +0.2g -0.1g +0.1g -0.15g +0.15g 50 0.9 -0.3g +0.2g -0.2g +0.2g -0.25g +0.2g To find out the average mass of the cathode : Experiment 1 + Experiment 2 2 GRAPHS: The graph below shows the average results of both experiments. ...read more.

Conclusion

If I have to carry this investigation out once again, I would make sure that I make the following improvements. I would use a device to make sure that the temperature of the solution is constant all the way through because previously I noticed that the temperature was not constant and increased as more current was applied, which was not a fair test. I would also use bigger electrodes so that I can continue this experiment on for a longer period allowing me to gain a larger number of results as well as results that are more accurate. I would also use a top pan balance that was maybe up to three decimal places instead of one decimal place. This is because every time that I weighed the electrodes, I sometimes noticed that the mass had not changed much as it should have or sometimes the mass did not change at all. If there were a three decimal place balance, I would gain more accurate results, graphs as well as for a more precise conclusion. I would also increase the time of the electrodes that are left in the solution so I could investigate further. I would also investigate the other our variables to see if there is any difference in the results. Overall, I thought that my experiment went fairly well. I tried to keep to the safety aspects as well as trying to lead a fair test. The majority of the experiment was fair and I gained reliable results that proved the majority of my hypothesis. Also my hypothesis and prediction was correct and did prove the majority of the results gained except for a few which I have accounted for already. From this experiment, I learnt about electrolysis in more depth as well as learning more about Michael Faraday and his two laws of electrolysis (stated above in the hypothesis). I have also learnt were I have to improve in carrying out this experiment as a fair test which I have already explained earlier on. 1 ...read more.

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