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# Investigating how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with Calcium Carbonate.

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Introduction

Investigating how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with Calcium Carbonate. Aim Calcium Carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce carbon dioxide. The aim of this investigation is to find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with calcium carbonate. In my experiment, I will use an overall volume of 50 cm� of 2moles of dilute hydrochloric acid and keep that constant throughout the entire experiment. Another independent variable in my experiment is the one-gram of calcium carbonate; I will also keep the surface area of the calcium carbonate the same. In each experiment I will vary the concentration of acid I use, ranging from 50 cm� of acid and no water, to 12.5 cm� of acid and 37.5 cm� of water. The equation for the reaction between Calcium carbonate, hydrochloric acid and water is: CaCO� + 2HCl � CaCl� + H�O + CO� Background information My experiment is based on the collision theory. This means that the particles in the solution continuously move around, this means that sometimes the particles collide. If the collision has enough energy a reaction takes place, but if the collision does not have enough energy, no reaction occurs and the particles bounce away from each other. In a successful collision, you need energy to break the bonds and then it would release energy as new bonds are formed. The more successful collisions that happen, the more products from the experiment are produced. This also means that the more successful collisions that happen the higher the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Whereas if the pieces are too big there wont be so much area exposed and therefore to react with so the calcium carbonate will not give off as much carbon dioxide as it should. After measuring the calcium carbonate accurately I will pour the pieces into the flask and then take one of the 50 cm� measuring cylinders and carefully measure the 2 m hydrochloric acid, then I take the other 50 cm� measuring cylinders and measure the water. I wont use the same 50 cm� measuring cylinder and measure both the water and acid in it at the same time because if the water goes wrong and I have already measured the acid in it, then I would have to start the measuring all over again. I will then pour the water into the measuring cylinder with the acid in and pour this into the flask, when I replace the bung I immediately start the stopwatch when the first bubble of carbon dioxide appears from the tube coming from the flask. Then, every 10 seconds I will take down the measurement on the 100 cm� measuring cylinder. However, I will take down the measurement on one second before 10 so I can allow time for working out the measurement of carbon dioxide. I will take a total of five measurements then repeat them so it is easier to spot anomalies. I will take measurements for a concentration of completely acid (2 M), this will act as a control for the experiment and will show that my results are reliable, by showing that the water does have an effect on the amount of carbon dioxide produced and therefore the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

These anomalous results are all at the beginning of the experiment and therefore are probably due to human error by misreading the volume on the measuring cylinder, or they could be due to not putting the bung in the flask quick enough. In my method, I did find one extreme flaw, when I used my 100 cm� measuring cylinder, I thought, with evidence from my preliminary experiment, that I would not need a bigger one because my results would not go past 100 cm�. However, as you can see from my results in the 2 M experiment, it did go beyond 100 cm� and this made it incredibly hard to measure the volume of carbon dioxide after this point. As it so happens the 2 M experiment was flawed due to human error anyway but in future I will use a 250 cm� measuring cylinder just in case. I could extend the experiment to provide further evidence for my conclusion by investigating the separate surface areas of calcium carbonate. If my conclusion is true, then from these experiments I should conclude that as the surface area increases, the rate of reaction is much faster. This is again due to collision theory. Because the acid particles can only collide with the outer calcium carbonate molecules, if there is a big block of calcium carbonate, the acid particles can only collide with the outer layers. However, if the calcium carbonate were powdered, many more molecules would be exposed, so the acid particles have a much greater chance of successful collision and so the rate of reaction is faster. 1 ST Susie Willmott (U10) ...read more.

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