• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry Coursework This experiment is aimed at investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction: The reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium will be used to investigate how different concentrations of the acid affect the rate of reaction. The gas produced from the reaction will be measured and used to display the average rate of reaction. The rate of reaction is a measure of how fast a reaction is going and how long it takes to complete. This rate is found by measuring the amount of a reactant used up per unit of time or the amount of a product produced per unit of time. For this reaction, the product will be measured, as this substance is the easiest and most accurate to measure. Scientific Knowledge: A reaction can be stimulated to go faster or slower by varying the temperature, the concentration of reactant and the surface area. For the magnesium and acid particles to react together, they must: i) Collide with each other ii) Have enough energy in the collision. Particles need to collide with enough velocity so that they react. During a chemical reaction, the particles have to collide with enough energy to first break the bonds and then to form the new bonds and the rearranged electrons, so some of the particles do not have enough energy to react when they collide. ...read more.

Middle

By using these measurements, the reaction rate is quite fast due to the excess acid. * 24 measurements of the amount of gas produced will be recorded every five seconds for two minutes. * The stopwatch will be used to time every five seconds for the gas measurements, and will be started as soon as the Magnesium is poured into the cylinder of acid in order to get accurate results. * It is important to keep the reactants separate while setting up the apparatus so that the starting time of the reaction can be measured accurately. * Variables: The concentration of hydrochloric acid is the independent variable because it will vary, and the time taken for the rate of reaction to take place is the dependant variable because it depends upon the concentration of acid. The title refers to the concentration affecting the rate of reaction, so only the concentration will change; the mass of magnesium and volume of hydrochloric acid will remain the same. These measurements were chosen because by having a larger volume of acid, the reaction rate is increased because there are more sites for the reaction to occur. Only one variable is being changed so the results will be accurate. ...read more.

Conclusion

As both these prediction were supported by the collision theory, it appears to have been right. However, the prediction for the 0.6M solution was incorrect because it was not based on scientific evidence, only on the calculations. Even though there were half as many acid particles to collide with the magnesium atoms, it does not solely depend on the number of the collision, but the number of successful collisions, to make a reaction take place. (The results from the second experiment were used in order to get a more accurate data collection.) Evaluation: For future experiments, it must be noted that the gas needs to be removed from gas syringe after each test, as this was one of the problems during the investigation. If the excess gas is not removed, the experiment begins and the results are completely out of range. It was felt that this experiment may have been easier with the aid of three people, as this would mean that there were not so many activities fro each person to record or read. In order to get a more accurate result, having recorded the measurements from the experiment, the results should have been averaged, instead of using only one set. For a full conclusion to be confirmed, more tests should have been carried out to provide enough evidence to support the argument. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Determine the rate equation for the reaction of hydrochloric acid with magnesium metal, and ...

    Furthermore, I would increase the excess that the magnesium is in, so that the progress of the reaction would have less effect on the relative surface area for reaction that there is. Activation energy - Temperature Problem To find the activation energy of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium.

  2. How Concentration affects the rate of reaction.

    I have used the averaged time for the cross to be obscured and the average rate of reaction to plot 2 line graphs. (I have rounded the time taken for the cross to be obscured to the nearest second so it is easier to plot the graph.)

  1. Experiment to investigate how changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of ...

    273.04 0.11 98.98 0.11 362.26 0.12 102.28 0.09 120 370.75 0.04 272.59 0.05 272.98 0.06 98.70 0.28 362.18 0.08 102.21 0.07 130 370.70 0.05 272.44 0.15 272.90 0.08 98.69 0.01 362.02 0.16 102.13 0.08 140 370.67 0.03 272.38 0.06 272.85 0.05 98.63 0.06 361.90 0.12 102.06 0.07 150 370.61 0.06

  2. Investigating the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid (Hcl) and Magnesium (Mg).

    Another reason may be that as the atoms were moving slower as the temperature decreased, therefore, many atoms may have just never come in contact. Or maybe it is because of the fact that the reaction is exothermic and as the experiment goes on the solution losses temperature and therefore,

  1. Find out how the rate of hydrolysis of an organic halogen compound depends on ...

    The total volume of oxygen given off at different times is measured from the start of the experiment and a graph of this against time is plotted. This allows the rate of the reaction in (cm3 of O2) s-1 to be calculated.

  2. Investigating the affect of concentration on the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric ...

    frequent so there is more chance of collisions with energy greater than or equal to the activation energy. Collisions are only effective if they have energy equal to or greater than the activation energy. The activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for a reaction to occur.

  1. Free essay

    Close Your Eyes

    Say they stole it. Yes, I shall do that. "I have an idea" I said "Tom mate, can you drop me home on the way to the alley?" "Yer sure, I think I can hear them coming now" And sure enough I could hear Louise's sweet voice and gorgeous laugh coming from the stairs.

  2. Find out how the concentration of the reactants affects the rate of reaction between ...

    an others I will not breath deeply when looking over the top of the flask to look for the cross because harmful gasses may be produced and taken in into my lungs and cause damage to my lungs and brain.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work