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# Investigating How the Concentraton of Hydrochloric Acid Affects the Rate of Reaction With Calcium Carbonate.

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Introduction

Aim: To investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction we will be reacting Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). To make this a fair test we will have to keep all variables the same except the one we are investigating. The products of the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid are calcium chloride and carbon dioxide. To measure the rate of reaction we will be measuring the volume of carbon dioxide produced. The size of the marble chips will be of a medium size, which we will keep the same throughout the experiment. The highest concentration of HCl subjected to the CaCO3 in the experiment is 2 molar. Prediction: I predict that the higher the concentration is the faster the reaction will take place this is because in a higher concentration there will more hydrochloric acid molecules per set volume. I will be using 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0M strengths of HCl. I think with a concentration of 2.0M, the reaction will be twice as fast as with a concentration of 1.0M and four times as fast with a 0.5 strength molarity of HCl. With a higher concentration there will be a higher chance of hydrochloric acid molecules colliding with the calcium carbonate and reacting. This should in theory increase the rate of reaction as the concentration is increased. Graph Showing Prediction The graph above illustrates (From Chemistry by A. Simms) what I predict will be the case when the molarity of the acid increases, and how it affects the reaction. When the acid first comes into contact with the calcium carbonate this is when the reaction is at its fastest which is denoted by point 1 on the graph when the gradient is at its steepest. This is the point where most of the CO2 is formed and we can see the varying amounts formed by the differing strengths of HCl. ...read more.

Middle

The higher the temperature of the HCl means higher velocities of the H+ ions particles. This means there will be less time between collisions. The frequency of collisions will increase. The increased number of collisions and the greater violence of collisions would result in more effective collisions, resulting in an overall faster reaction. At a higher concentration, collisions are again more frequent, as there are more reactant particles in the liquid. The reaction rate, or velocity, at which a chemical reaction proceeds, is expressed in terms of the amount of a product formed C02 per unit time. Thus, for the reaction of two compounds X (being HCl) and Y (being CaC03) that forms products Z or more (being H20, CO2 and CaCl2). The equation is X + Y= Z, and the reaction rate may be given by the rate of increase of the concentration by X. Mathematically, the reaction rate is given by dCZ/dt, -dCX/dt, or -dCY/dt, in which C represents the concentration (e.g. molarity) of the species denoted by the subscript. The symbol d/dt is the mathematical expression for the rate of change of some quantity with respect to time (being CaC03). Chemical reactions proceed at different speeds depending on the nature of the reacting substances and the type of chemical transformation in products being created. In general, reactions in which ions (electrically charged particles) combine or separate occur very rapidly such as the H+ ions, while those in which covalent bonds are formed or broken are much slower such as the H20. For a given set of reactants, the speed of the reaction will vary with the concentration or pressure imposed on the reacting system and the amounts of reactants used. Ordinarily the reaction will gradually slow down as the reactants become depleted and as more products are produced hampering the reaction such as the H20 and CaCl2. The reaction-rate constant, or the specific rate constant, is the proportionality constant in the equation that describes the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the concentrations of the reacting substances. ...read more.

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