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# Investigating how the e.m.f. across Opposite Faces of a Piezoelectric Crystal Varies with both Compressive and Tensile Forces

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Introduction

Investigating how the e.m.f. across Opposite Faces of a Piezoelectric Crystal Varies with both Compressive and Tensile Forces Aim To investigate how the emf across a piezoelectric crystal varies when both compressive and tensile forces are applied to it. Background information A piezoelectric crystal is a type of crystal that, when put under compressive or tensile forces, produces a high voltage at a low current, similar to that of static electricity. This is not enough to light a bulb, but if the crystal is struck with force a current large enough can be produced to flash a small neon lamp, or make a click on an amplifier. Apparatus Superglue 1 x uniform 1m metal rod (like a metal ruler) 1 x pivot 1 x clamp stand 1 x boss 1 x G-clamp 1 x metal block 1 x quartz crystal (piezoelectric crystal) ...read more.

Middle

* The distances between the centre of mass of the weights to the pivot, and the centre of the quartz crystal to the pivot are the same. * The centre of mass of the rod is above the pivot. Making the experiements fair/accurate The experiment can be made accurate in the following ways: * Using a rod and block made of metal, not wood. This means that the wood is unlikely to dent and most of the force provided by the moment will be used to compress/stretch the crystal. * Using an accurate voltmeter (one that is digital and reads up to 2 s.f.). * Making sure the distances from the masses to the pivot and the crystal to the pivot are the same. This means that the force applied on the left is equal to the compressive/tensile force felt by the crystal so no complicated/unnecessary moment calculations have to be made * The centre of mass of the metal rod is above the pivot. ...read more.

Conclusion

This was repeated for masses from 0g to 1kg in 100g increments so 11 readings were taken all together. Repeat the experiment 3 times to produce triplicate results. Method - tensile forces The apparatus was set up as in the diagram but with no masses loaded on the end of the string. The reading on the voltmeter was taken. A 100g mass was then attached to the string and a voltmeter reading taken. Another 100g mass was then attached to the string and another voltmeter reading taken. This was repeated for masses from 0g to 1kg in 100g increments so 11 readings were taken all together. Repeat the experiment 3 times to produce triplicate results. After these experiements, a graph of mass (grams (g), x-axis) and potential difference (volts (V), y-axis) can be plotted for each experiment. The lines can be drawn on the same graph to highlight any difference between the emf produced by compressive and tensile forces. ...read more.

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